Full waveform inversion (FWI) has been gaining a lot of attention in recent years due to its ability to produce high resolution images of the subsurface. This method can also be used to image velocity variations due to time-lapse effects. In this study, we use 2D elastic full waveform inversion in the time domain to tackle the time-lapse problem. Both P-wave and S-wave velocity changes are recovered through the inversion process. We first provide a summary of conventional time-lapse FWI, as well as a theoretical description of the residual time-lapse waveform inversion (RTWI) approach. Numerical experiments, including a synthetic example and a real example from the Valhall field, are used to demonstrate the differences of these two approaches. For both strategies, data repeatability and noise dictate the inversion results. In general, the RTWI approach produces better time-lapse velocity images than the conventional approach.


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