To evaluate repeatability of emerging seismic technologies for future 4D seismic reservoir monitoring studies on Middle East carbonate reservoirs, a seismic field acquisition test was conducted over an onshore field in Saudi Arabia. The effects of near-surface complexity (in the form of sand and karsts) as well as large surface temperature variations are illustrated and quantified by 4D attribute analysis using permanent piezoelectric seismic sources. Even though measured repeatability does not reach values observed in non-desert environments, we show that burying receivers dramatically improves the wavelet amplitude stability. As the complex near-surface scattering layer appears to be thicker than initially expected with the presence of karsts down to a depth of 40 m, we conclude that deeper burial of sources and receivers below the most complex part of the near surface may potentially let us use lower-fold seismic data for reservoir monitoring in complex near-surface desert environments.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error