We present an approach to study the effect of resistivity changes on marine CSEM measurements based on a heterogeneous reservoir model with various parameter settings. The resistivity changes may be caused by waterflooding or due to different distribution of reservoir properties. By integrating fluid flow simulation with electromagnetic modeling, we take into account a more realistic flooding front. In addition to previous studies, we further confirmed the useability of marine CSEM for reservoir monitoring and characterization under certain conditions. The forward modeling results demonstrated that the inline electric field, transverse magnetic field, and vertical electric field are all sensitive to the resistivity changes. Particularly, the vertical electric field shows capability of direct identification of fluid front movement although the accurate position of the front may not be fully mapped. To provide a quantitative, more reliable interpretation of time-lapse marine CSEM data, we need to perform the fluid-flow constrained inversion by choosing appropriate electromagnetic field components and positioning sources and receivers properly.


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