We present a method to design near-orthogonal air-gun firing sequences for applications that exploit sequence orthogonality. We demonstrate that using a simulated annealing approach, we can optimize the autocorrelation and crosscorrelation properties of two sequences. Using a standard air-gun array we show the design of a pair of optimized air-gun firing sequences. The designed sequences are close to orthogonal to each other and provide a significant benefit for simultaneous source separation based on sequence encoding. This new method enables designing tailor-made air-gun firing sequences for multipurpose applications and can easily be extended to include additional design criteria.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Abma, R. and Ross, A.
    [2013] Popcorn shooting: Sparse inversion and the distribution of airgun array energy over time. In: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2013. 31–35.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. [2015] Practical aspects of the popcorn source method. In: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015. 164—169.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Fan, P. and Darnell, M.
    [1996] Sequence design for communications applications. Research Studies Press Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Halliday, D., Robertsson, J.O.A., Vasconcelos, I., van Manen, D.J., Laws, R., Ozdemir, K. and Gronaas, H.
    [2012] Full-wavefield, towed-marine seismic acquisition and applications. In: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2012. 1–5.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ji, Y., Kragh, E. and Christie, P.A.F.
    [2013] Separation of simultaneous source data. US Patent 0135965 Al.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Kirkpatrick, S., Gelatt, CD. and Vecchi, M.P
    [1983] Optimization by simulated annealing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 220(4598), 671–80.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Mueller, M.B., Halliday, D.F, van Manen, D.J. and Robertsson, J.O.A.
    [2015] The benefit of encoded source sequences for simultaneous source separation. GEOPHYSICS, 80(5), V133-V143.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Robertsson, J.O.A., van Manen, D.J., Halliday, D. and Laws, R.
    [2008] Seismic data acquisition and source-side derivatives generation and application. U.S. Patent No 7,492,665 B2.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Stoffa, PL. and Ziolkowski, A.
    [1983] Seismic source decomposition. GEOPHYSICS, 48(1), 1–11.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Wu, S., Blacquiere, G. and van Groenestijn, G.J.
    [2015] Shot repetition: an alternative approach to blending in marine seismic. In: SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015. 48–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ziolkowski, A.
    [1984] The Delft airgun experiment. First Break, 2(1160), 9–18.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error