The development of new subsurface technologies often calls for measurements under extreme conditions and/or extended sensing requirements. Within recent years, continued developments in fiber-optic sensing have led to new possibilities for geophysical exploration and monitoring. These include several distributed methods, where data is recorded with high spatial and temporal resolution over long distances using the optical fiber as a sensor, exploiting different scattering mechanisms. Here we outline some new technologies in this context within case studies from different research projects including permanent installation of fiber-optic sensor cables behind casing, monitoring of high-temperature wells, a hybrid wireline logging system, and seismic recording using long-distance surface cables. We show that fiber-optic sensing opens up new possibilities for geophysical measurements with a broad range of applications in well logging and seismic exploration and monitoring. More time and cost effective deployment is possible, but continued research and development efforts are necessary to address remaining challenges.


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