1887

Abstract

Summary

Polymer flooding is a chemical EOR method which aims to improve the oil recovery by making the water phase more viscous, and hence to increase the macroscopic sweep efficiency of a waterflood. However, the polymers considered for EOR applications are very susceptible to mechanical degradation in regions of high shear, such as in the injection facilities and in near well regions. If the applied flow rate is too high, an injected polymer solution may lose more or less all its viscosifying ability before properly entering the formation. This can be especially difficult to avoid if polymer is injected directly into a heterogeneous reservoir region where high molecular weight polymer species will have to travel through successive contractions and expansions inside small pores.

At EAGE-ECMOR XV we presented a new simulation model that is capable of modeling all the commonly observed flow regimes in porous media, such as Newtonian, shear thinning and shear thickening flow, as well as polymer mechanical degradation. Based on simple pore scale models, we derived expressions for the in-situ polymer rheology that can account for spatial variations in important reservoir parameters such as permeability, temperature, and salinity. This allowed us to match the different experiments with most of the input parameters kept fixed. The model captured very well how HPAM polymers of different molecular weights were mechanically degraded when injected into cores and series of cores with an order of magnitude variation in permeability.

In this paper we use the model with parameters that was history matched to lab data to study the polymer behaviour in a typical field operation. We investigate how the model scales from the lab to the field. In particular, we simulate flow of polymer near an injector in order to estimate the amount and extent of mechanical degradation as a function of injection rate and reservoir heterogeneity near the injection well. Preliminary results indicate that there will always be some degradation, but that this can to some extent be minimized using reasonable injection rates. In cases of open fractures near the injection well, the risk of degrading the polymer will be greatly reduced.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201700335
2017-04-24
2020-04-09
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Al Hashmi, A., Al Maamari, R., Al Shabibi, I., Mansoor, A., Zaitoun, A. and Al Sharji, H.
    [2013] Rheology and mechanical degradation of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide during flow through capillaries. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 105, 100–106.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bird, R.B., Armstrong, R.C., Hassager, O. and Curtiss, C.F.
    [1977] Dynamics of polymeric liquids, 1. Wiley, New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chauveteau, G. and Moan, M.
    [1981] The onset of dilatant behaviour in non-inertial flow of dilute polymer solutions through channels with varying cross-sections. Journal de Physique Lettres, 42(10), 201–204.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chauveteau, G., Moan, M. and Magueur, A.
    [1984] Thickening behaviour of dilute polymer solutions in non-inertial elongational flows. Journal of non-newtonian fluid mechanics, 16(3), 315–327.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Clemens, T., Lueftenegger, M., Laoroongroj, A., Kadnar, R., Puls, C. et al.
    [2016] The Use of Tracer Data To Determine Polymer-Flooding Effects in a Heterogeneous Reservoir, 8 Torton Horizon Reservoir, Matzen Field, Austria. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Delshad, M., Kim, D.H., Magbagbeola, O.A., Huh, C., Pope, G.A., Tarahhom, F. et al.
    [2008] Mechanistic interpretation and utilization of viscoelastic behavior of polymer solutions for improved polymer-flood efficiency. In: SPE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Glasbergen, G., Wever, D., Keijzer, E. and Farajzadeh, R.
    [2015] Injectivity loss in polymer floods: causes, preventions and mitigations. In: SPE Kuwait Oil and Gas Show and Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gumpenberger, T., Deckers, M., Kornberger, M. and Clemens, T.
    [2012] Experiments and simulation of the near-wellbore dynamics and displacement efficiencies of polymer injection, Matzen Field, Austria. In: Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. van den Hoek, P.J., Al-Masfry, R.A., Zwarts, D., Jansen, J.D., Hustedt, B. and van Schijndel, L.
    [2008] Waterflooding Under Dynamic Induced Fractures: Reservoir Management and Optimisation of Fractured Waterfloods. In: SPE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kaminsky, R.D., Wattenbarger, R.C., Szafranski, R.C. and Coutee, A.
    [2007] Guidelines for polymer flooding evaluation and development. In: International petroleum technology conference. International Petroleum Technology Conference.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Let, M.S., Priscilla, K., Manichand, R.N. and Seright, R.S.
    [2012] Polymer Flooding a ~ 500-cp Oil. In: SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Levitt, D.B., Slaughter, W., Pope, G. and Jouenne, S.
    [2011] The effect of redox potential and metal solubility on oxidative polymer degradation. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 14(03), 287–298.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Lueftenegger, M., Kadnar, R., Puls, C., Clemens, T. et al.
    [2016] Operational Challenges and Monitoring of a Polymer Pilot, Matzen Field, Austria. SPE Production & Operations.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Maerker, J.
    [1975] Shear degradation of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide solutions. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, 15(04), 311–322.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. [1976] Mechanical degradation of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide solutions in unconsolidated porous media. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, 16(04), 172–174.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Manichand, R.N., Let, M.S., Kathleen, P., Gil, L., Quillien, B. and Seright, R.S.
    [2013] Effective propagation of HPAM solutions through the Tambaredjo reservoir during a polymer flood. SPE Production & Operations, 28(04), 358–368.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Morel, D., Zaugg, E., Jouenne, S., Danquigny, J. and Cordelier, P.
    [2015] Dalia/Camelia Polymer Injection in Deep Offshore Field Angola Learnings and in Situ Polymer Sampling Results. In: SPE Asia Pacific Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Nødland, O., Lohne, A., Stavland, A. and Hiorth, A.
    [2016] A Model for Non-Newtonian Flow in Porous Media at Different Flow Regimes. In: ECMOR XV-15th European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Omari, A., Moan, M. and Chauveteau, G.
    [1989] Wall effects in the flow of flexible polymer solutions through small pores. Rheologica Acta, 28(6), 520–526.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ryles, R.
    [1988] Chemical stability limits of water-soluble polymers used in oil recovery processes. SPE reservoir engineering, 3(01), 23–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Seright, R.
    [2010] Potential for polymer flooding reservoirs with viscous oils. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 13(04), 730–740.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Seright, R., Skjevrak, I. et al.
    [2014] Effect of Dissolved Iron and Oxygen on Stability of HPAM Polymers. In: SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Seright, R.S.
    [1983] The effects of mechanical degradation and viscoelastic behavior on injectivity of polyacrylamide solutions. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, 23(03), 475–485.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Seright, R.S., Seheult, J.M., Talashek, T. et al.
    [2008] Injectivity characteristics of EOR polymers. In: SPE annual technical conference and exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Sharma, A., Delshad, M., Huh, C., Pope, G.A. et al.
    [2011] A practical method to calculate polymer viscosity accurately in numerical reservoir simulators. In: SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Sheng, J.J., Leonhardt, B., Azri, N. et al.
    [2015] Status of polymer-flooding technology. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 54(02), 116–126.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Standnes, D.C. and Skjevrak, I.
    [2014] Literature review of implemented polymer field projects. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 122, 761–775.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Stavland, A., Jonsbroten, H., Lohne, A., Moen, A. and Giske, N.
    [2010] Polymer Flooding–Flow Properties in Porous Media Versus Rheological Parameters. In: Presented at the 72nd EAGE Conference and Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC, SPE-131103-MS.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Thomas, A., Gaillard, N. and Favero, C.
    [2012] Some key features to consider when studying acrylamide-based polymers for chemical enhanced oil recovery. Oil & Gas Science and Technology–Revue d’IFP Energies nouvelles, 67(6), 887–902.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Wang, D., Dong, H., Lv, C., Fu, X. and Nie, J.
    [2009] Review of practical experience by polymer flooding at Daqing. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 12(03), 470–476.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Wang, D., Han, P., Shao, Z., Hou, W., Seright, R.S. et al.
    [2008] Sweep-improvement options for the Daqing oil field. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 11(01), 18–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Zechner, M., Buchgraber, M., Clemens, T., Gumpenberger, T., Castanier, L.M. and Kovscek, A.R.
    [2013] Flow of polyacrylamide polymers in the near-wellbore-region, rheological behavior within induced fractures and near-wellbore-area. In: SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Zechner, M., Clemens, T., Suri, A. and Sharma, M.M.
    [2015] Simulation of Polymer Injection Under Fracturing Conditions-An Injectivity Pilot in the Matzen Field, Austria. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 18(02), 236–249.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201700335
Loading
/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201700335
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error