Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a high-resolution model building technique that uses the entire seismic record content to build the earth model. Conventional FWI usually utilizes diving and refracted waves to update the low-wavenumber in other words the background components of the model; however, the update is often depth-limited due to the limited offset range acquired. To extend conventional FWI beyond the limits of the transmitted energy, we must use reflection data as well. Field data examples demonstrate that, even in a complex subsalt Gulf of Mexico setting, the background velocity model can be updated from shallow to deep water using conventional FWI followed by reflection-based FWI.


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