Recent technological developments, such as Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) and surface orbital vibrators, facilitate the deployment of permanent sources and receivers for Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) geometry. Seismic data acquired with VSP geometries can be used for quantitative interpretation by time-lapse Full-Waveform Inversion (FWI). We test the possibility of conducting a time-lapse FWI of DAS VSP data with a sparse set of sources on two synthetic examples. Both examples show that time-lapse FWI can produce similar images for a dense source array and a small number of permanent sources. The first example is based on a simple model, it illustrates how double-difference and target-oriented inversion strategies can assist the permanent-source inversion. The second example is based on a full-earth model of the CO2CRC Otway site and shows that time-lapse FWI of the data acquired with permanent sources is possible in realistic models.


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