Velocity model building and parameter estimation make the routine time-domain seismic imaging algorithms time-consuming and labor-intensive. Cost-effective alternatives to those algorithms are the oriented techniques that use the derivatives of traveltimes with respect to the location of receivers on the acquisition surface, including local slopes and curvatures. However, estimation of curvatures or the second derivatives/curvatures with sufficient accuracy is a problematic task. The local slopes are sufficient enough to provide complete information about moveout curves, velocity fields, anisotropic parameters, and in general the subsurface structures. In this paper, we show that that accuracy of the techniques that rely only on the local slopes is significantly higher than the techniques that employ both the local slopes and curvatures. This is demonstrated in two different subjects of time-domain seismic imaging: pre-stack migration and moveout parameter estimation in vertical transverse isotropic media.


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