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Abstract

Multiples can be defined as reflected events that have bounced more than once in the subsurface. Conventionally, multiples are considered as noise and are rarely taken into account in the imaging process. By ignoring multiples, they can appear as spurious events in the seismic image. They can also mask weaker primaries that arrive at a similar time. It is for this reason many technique shave been developed in order to distinguish multiples and attenuate them (Verschuur et al., 1992; Coates and Weglein, 1996). Recently, there has been a drive to utilize multiples rather than eliminating them (Zhang and Schuster, 2013; Berkhout, 2014b; Zuberi and Alkhalifah, 2014; Berkhout and Verschuur, 2016). Utilizing them can broaden the subsurface illumination and attenuate the effect of shadow zones (Davydenko and Verschuur, 2017), and therefore, they can provide a more balanced illumination of the subsurface (Kumar etal.,2014;Luetal.,2015). An other benefit that comes out of using multiples is that it enables imaging structures from below as shown by Davydenko and Verschuur (2013, 2017). A significant issue that arises when imaging with multiples is that anaccurate velocity model is needed. Multiples are generally more sensitive velocity model errors because they travel a greater distance in the subsurface compared to primaries.

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/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201801933
2018-06-10
2020-07-14
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http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201801933
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