The limited success of wave equation based methods for multiple removal on land is likely due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the relevant multiple mechanism. Where are the strongest multiples generated? Are multiples mostly surface multiples, generated by reflection at the free surface? Or is it the base of the weathering layer that is the source of significant multiple energy, so that we should talk about interbed multiples instead? What is the relative contribution of interbed multiples to the total multiple energy? What is the role of elastic effects, in particular mode conversions? In this paper, we will discuss an attempt to advance our understanding of the multiple mechanism in a typical Middle East land setting. The basic approach is to combine a variety of techniques providing shallow subsurface information (shallow well logs, modal elastic inversion, elastic full waveform inversion, surface consistent deconvolution filters) to obtain a single consistent and detailed shallow model and to subsequently compare synthetic forward modeled data and actual field data to challenge various multiple mechanism scenarios.


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