1887

Abstract

Summary

In cases with significant density difference between the injection mixture and the reservoir fluids, segregation can take place on short temporal scales relative to the typical time-step lengths of the simulation. A fully resolved 3D description is computationally demanding and is often difficult to achieve with buoyancy segregated flow. Vertical Equilibrium (VE) is one possible technique for effective upscaling in regions of gravity segregation and has been widely considered for CO2 storage applications. VE has connections to pseudo-relative permeability models for gas injection. In this work, we use a general pseudo-relative permeability model to couple conventional 3D and upscaled models, including VE formulations with support for compositional simulations. This gives a flexible framework where different choices of coarsening and pseudoization can be used locally throughout the domain, allowing for an optimal trade-off between runtime and accuracy. The new approach is demonstrated within the framework of a fully implicit compositional flow simulator with nonlinear equation-of-state, which provides a robust and stable base for inclusion of additional physical effects.

Possible applications for this methodology include gas injection for enhanced oil recovery, CO2 storage in aquifers, or other gas-storage scenarios. We demonstrate the approach for gas injection and migration on both conceptual unstructured grids as well as corner-point models taken from real fields and saline aquifers from the Norwegian Continental Shelf.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201802237
2018-09-03
2021-06-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Barker, J. and Fayers, F.
    [1994] Transport coefficients for compositional simulation with coarse grids in heterogeneous media. SPE Advanced Technology Series, 2(02), 103–112.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Barker, J. and Thibeau, S.
    [1997] A critical review of the use of pseudorelative permeabilities for up-scaling. SPE Reservoir Engineering, 12(2), 138–143.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Becker, B., Guo, B., Bandilla, K., Celia, M.A., Flemisch, B. and Helmig, R.
    [2017] An adaptive multi-physics model coupling vertical equilibrium and full multidimensions for multiphase flow in porous media. arXiv preprint arXiv:1711.09614.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cavanagh, A.J., Haszeldine, R.S. and Nazarian, B.
    [2015] The Sleipner CO2 storage site: using a basin model to understand reservoir simulations of plume dynamics. First Break, 33(June), 61–68.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Coats, K.H.
    [1980] An equation of state compositional model. SPE Journal, 20(05), 363–376.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Coats, K.H., Dempsey, J.R. and Henderson, J.H.
    [1971] The Use of Vertical Equilibrium in Two-Dimensional Simulation of Three-Dimensional Reservoir Preformance. Soc. Pet. Eng. J., Mar, 68–71.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Coats, K.H., Nielsen, R.L., Terune, M.H. and G.Weber, A.
    [1967] Simulation of Three-Dimensional, Two-Phase Flow in Oil and Gas Reservoirs. Soc. Pet. Eng. J., Dec, 377–388.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Digital, S.
    [2017] The MATLAB Reservoir Simulation Toolbox, 2017b. http://www.sintef.no/MRST/.
  9. Eiken, O., Ringrose, P., Hermanrud, C., Nazarian, B., Torp, T.A. and Høier, L.
    [2011] Lessons learned from 14 years of CCS operations: Sleipner, In Salah and Snøhvit. Energy Procedia, 4, 5541–5548. 10th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Guo, B., Bandilla, K.W., Nordbotten, J.M., Celia, M.A., Keilegavlen, E. and Doster, F.
    [2016] A multi-scale multilayer vertically integrated model with vertical dynamics for CO2 sequestration in layered geological formations. Water Resources Research, 52(8), 6490–6505.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Indrupskiy, I.M., Lobanova, O.A. and Zubov, V.R.
    [2017] Non-equilibrium phase behavior of hydrocarbons in compositional simulations and upscaling. Computational Geosciences, 21(5-6), 1173–1188.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Iranshahr, A., Chen, Y. and Voskov, D.V.
    [2014] A coarse-scale compositional model. Computational Geosciences, 18(5), 797–815.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Jacks, H.H., Smith, O.J.E. and Mattax, C.C.
    [1973] The Modeling of a Three-Dimensional Reservoir with a Two-Dimensional Reservoir Simulator – The Use of Dynamic Pseudo Functions. Soc. Pet. Eng. J., 13(3), 175–185.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Krogstad, S., Lie, K.A., Møyner, O., Nilsen, H.M., Raynaud, X. and Skaflestad, B.
    [2015] MRST-AD – an Open-Source Framework for Rapid Prototyping and Evaluation of Reservoir Simulation Problems. In: SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, 23–25 February, Houston, Texas.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kyte, J.R. and Berry, D.W.
    [1975] New pseudo functions to control numerical dispersion. Soc. Pet. Eng. J., 15(4), 269–276.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lie, K.A.
    [2017] An Introduction to Reservoir Simulation Using MATLAB: User guide for the Matlab Reservoir Simulation Toolbox (MRST). SINTEF Digital, 2nd edn. http://www.sintef.no/Projectweb/MRST/publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Martin, J.C.
    [1958] Some Mathematical Aspects of Two Phase Flow with Application to Flooding and Gravity Segregation. Prod. Monthly, 22(6), 22–35.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. [1968] Partial Integration of Equation of Multiphase Flow. Soc. Pet. Eng. J., Dec, 370–380.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Michelsen, M.L.
    [1982] The isothermal flash problem. Part I. Stability. Fluid phase equilibria, 9(1), 1–19.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Møyner, O. and Nilsen, H.M.
    [2017] Multiresolution Coupled Vertical Equilibrium Model for Fast Flexible Simulation of CO_2 Storage. arXiv preprint arXiv:1710.08735.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Møyner, O. and Tchelepi, H.
    [2018] A Mass-Conservative Sequential Implicit Multiscale Method for Isothermal Equation of State Compositional Problems. SPE Journal. To appear.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nilsen, H.M., Lie, K.A. and Andersen, O.
    [2016a] Fully-implicit simulation of vertical-equilibrium models with hysteresis and capillary fringe. Computational Geosciences, 20(1), 49–67.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. [2016b] Robust simulation of sharp-interface models for fast estimation of CO2 trapping capacity. Comput. Geosci., 20(1), 93–113.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Nordbotten, J.M. and Celia, M.A.
    [2012] Geological Storage of CO2: Modeling Approaches for Large-Scale Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Salehi, A., Voskov, D. and Tchelepi, H.
    [2013] Thermodynamically consistent transport coefficients for upscaling of compositional processes. In: SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Stone, H.L.
    [1991] Rigorous Black Oil Pseudo Functions. In: SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation, 17-20 February, Anaheim, California, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201802237
Loading
/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201802237
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error