One of the processes threatening the stability of levees is piping during high water-levels. The feasibility of using Electrical Tomography Resistivity (ERT) to image and monitor pipes was studied on a pilot site near Herxen, the Netherlands, next to the levee of the river IJssel. In 2017, an ERT survey was conducted to characterise the resistivity distribution at the site. This showed a shallow, ~ 1 m thin sand layer, followed by a clay layer of ~ 5 m overlying sand again. In January 2018, a densely-spaced 3D electrode grid was installed and measurements were performed during observed flow through a pipe and afterwards when water flow was no longer observed. The inversion results show that the resistivity appears to be less resistive during flow. This is possibly due to…. From our inversion results we conclude that pipes might be detected using ERT. We plan to continue this research in a controlled laboratory environment.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Karaoulis, M.,. J.-H.Kim, and P.I.Tsourlos
    , 2011, 4D Active Time Constrained inversion: Journal of Applied Geophysics, 73, no. 1, 25–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Revil, A.; Karaoulis, M; Johnson, T; Kemna, A.
    ;, Some low-frequency electrical methods for subsurface characterization and monitoring in hydrogeology, Hydrogeology Journal, 20, 4, 617–658, 2012, Springer-Verlag
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Reference for the IJkdijk: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19648189.2011.9714845
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error