Within the H2020-funded Smart Exploration project existing legacy seismic data acquired in the Ludvika Mines are analysed in order to delineate the deposits in depth. Here we present a velocity model derived using first-break traveltime tomography, which represent the near-surface materials at high resolution and can be directly used for refraction static calculations or incorporation and for depth imaging algorithm. Our results are consistent with derived velocities from downhole logging data and show a strong vertical velocity gradient in the upper first hundred meters. In mineral exploration clear images of the subsurface and an improved characterization of mineral deposits are required to reduce the risk before drilling. Especially in prestack depth imaging workflows, which are successfully applied to hardrock seismic data, a reliable velocity model is required that represents the lateral and vertical variations in lithology and assures the robustness of the velocity model within the application of depth migration routines at the same time. A special focus of this work lies on the derivation of a detailed near-surface velocity model, which accounts for strong scattering effects due to lateral inhomogeneities as well as for topographic effects on the reflections.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Buske, S., Gutjahr, S., Sick, C.
    [2009] Fresnel volume migration of single-component seismic data. Geophysics, 74, WCA47–WCA55, 10.1190/1.3223187.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Hlousek, F., Hellwig, O., Buske, S.
    [2015] Improved structural characterization of the Earth’s crust at the German Continental Deep Drilling Site using advanced seismic imaging techniques. Journal of Geophysical Research, Solid Earth, 120, 6943–6959.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Malehmir, A., Maries, G., Bäckström, E., Schön, M., Marsden, P.
    [2017] Developing cost-effective seismic mineral exploration methods using a landstreamer and a drophammer. Scientific Reports, 7, 1.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Maries, G., Malehmir, A., Bäckström, E., Schön, M., Marsden, P.
    [2017a] Reflection seismic imaging of iron-oxide deposits: an example from Bergslagen mining district of Sweden. Near Surface Geoscience, Malmö-Sweden, September 2017.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. [2017b] Downhole physical property logging for iron-oxide exploration, rock quality, and mining: An example from central Sweden. Ore Geology Review, 90, 1–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Zhang, J., Toksöz, M. N.
    [1998] Nonlinear refraction traveltime tomography. Geophysics, 63(5), 1726–1737.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error