A large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) research project has been carried out by Battelle in cooperation with Core Energy LLC to evaluate the feasibility of sequestering CO2 into carbonate reef formations. The study area is located in Otsego Country, Michigan, USA, where Core Energy LLC utilizes CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in Silurian pinnacle reefs. Novel monitoring tools such as distributing acoustic sensing (DAS) offer promise for monitoring CCS operations, and a time-lapse 4D DAS vertical seismic profiling (DAS VSP) seismic survey was carried out to assess the technology's applicability for delineating and tracking injected CO2 in a carbonate reservoir. Two 3D DAS VSP surveys were acquired 16 months apart; between the first (baseline) and the second (repeat) survey 86,000 tons of CO2 had been injected. Preliminary analyses of the time lapse DAS VSP data indicates that fibre-optic distributed acoustic sensing can be used to characterize the CO2 footprint inside carbonate reservoirs.


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  1. Kelley, M., Miller, D., Grindei, L., Modroo, A., and Gupta, N.
    [2018] Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Based Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) for Monitoring CO2 Injected into a Pinnacle-Reef Reservoir: 14th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies GHGT-14, Melbourne, Australia
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Parker, T., Shatalin, S., and Farhadiroushan, M.
    [2014] Distributed Acoustic Sensing – a new tool for seismic applications: First Break, 32, 61–69
    [Google Scholar]

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