1887

Abstract

Summary

Alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding (ASP) is one of most attractive chemical EOR techniques in view of incremental recovery upon waterflooding. Emulsification mechanism in ASP flooding is very important but not well understood. Effects of emulsification in ASP flooding is reviewed based on reported field tests as well as laboratory studies, especially on progress and understanding of ASP flooding in China, where the only commercial ASP flooding has been conducted. The main mechanism of ASP flooding can be summarized to the displacement efficiency improvement due to the ultra-low interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water and the sweep efficiency increase due to mobility control technique by polymer viscosifying and emulsification effect. Emulsification is crucial in ASP flooding since all ASP flooding pilots were seen emulsification with different extent. Oil emulsifying and emulsion profile controlling was regarded as important in ASP flooding mechanisms. Laboratory tests showed that emulsification increase the oil recovery by 5%-6% when emulsified compared with not emulsified. Experience from Daqing oilfield in China reported that contribution of emulsifying ability of ASP system to oil displacement efficiency can be as high as 30%. Factors affecting emulsification included the properties of oil and water, type and concentration of chemical, water cut, external force applied and permeability. Effects of alkali to ASP system and oil emulsification was carefully studied. IFT was an important but not crucial factor to emulsification. Lower IFT at higher alkali concentration promoted easier emulsification, while too low IFT was detrimental to emulsion stability due to the competitive adsorption of in-situ surfactants and added surfactant in oil/water interface. Addition of polymer was beneficial to the stability of emulsion and the effect of associate polymer recent was obvious. ASP field tests in Daqing oilfield verified the emulsify ability of NaOH was almost the same as Na2CO3, which was quite different from laboratory studies. In all development stages of ASP flooding, emulsification was seen. Injection pattern and water cut affected emulsification. Separate injection of alkali and surfactant as one system, while polymer as the other make higher degree of O/W type emulsion. Emulsification in main slug and vice slug showed difference characteristics, which was attributed to the relative content of surfactants in different water cut stage.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201900122
2019-04-08
2020-08-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. AlkhatibA, BabaeiM.
    Applying the Multilevel Monte Carlo Method for Heterogeneity-Induced Uncertainty Quantification of Surfactant /Polymer Flooding. SPE J.2016,21(04):1192–203.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. BeraA, OjhaK, MandalA, KumarT.
    Interfacial tension and phase behavior of surfactant-brine-oil system. Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 2011;383(1–3):114–9.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. ChengJ, AHXI, DingY.
    Mechanism of interfacial characteristics of ASP- system on oil displacement efficiency. J. China Univ. Pet. Nat. Sci. 2014;38(4):162–8.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. CobosS, CarvalhoMS, AlvaradoV.
    Flow of oil-water emulsions through a constricted capillary. Int. J. Multiph. Flow [Internet]. Elsevier Ltd; 2009;35(6):507–15.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. DemikhovaII, Likhanova NV, HernandezJR, LopezDA, Olivares-xometlO, MoctezumaAE, et al.
    Emulsion fl ooding for enhanced oil recovery?: Filtration model and numerical simulation. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 2016;143:235–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. DingY.
    Effect of Emulsification on ASP Flooding Mechanism. 2018 China Oil Gas Dev. Technol. Conf. 2018. p. 635–9.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. FariasMLR De, Souza aL De, CarvalhoMS, HirasakiG, MillerC.
    A Comparative Study of Emulsion Flooding and other IOR Methods for Heavy Oil. SPE Lat. Am. Caribb. Pet. Eng. Conf. 2012.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. FingasM, FieldhouseB.
    Studies on water-in-oil products from crude oils and petroleum products. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2012;64(2):272–283.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. GregersenCS, KazempourM, AlvaradoV.
    ASP design for the Minnelusa formation under low-salinity conditions: Impacts of anhydrite on ASP performance. Fuel,2013;105:368–382.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. GuillenVR, CarvalhoMS, AlvaradoV.
    Pore Scale and Macroscopic Displacement Mechanisms in Emulsion Flooding. Transp. Porous Media. 2012a;94(1):197–206.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. GuillenVR, RomeroMI, Carvalho M daS, AlvaradoV.
    Capillary-driven mobility control in macro emulsion flow in porous media. Int. J. Multiph. Flow. Elsevier Ltd; 2012b;43:62–65.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. GuoH, LiY, GuY, WangF.
    Comparison of Strong Alkali and Weak Alkali ASP Flooding Pilot Tests in Daqing Oilfield. SPE Prod. Oper. 2018;22(02):353–362. SPE-179661-PA
    [Google Scholar]
  13. GuoH, LiY, KongD, MaR, LiB, WangF.
    Lessons Learned from Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer(ASP) Flooding Field Tests in China. SPE Reserv. Eval. Eng. 2019;22(01):78–99.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. GuoH, LiY, WangF, YuZ, ChenZ, WangY.
    ASP Flooding:Theory and Practice Progress in China. J. Chem. 2017a.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. GuoH, YiqiangL, RuichengM, FuyongW, ZhangS.
    Evaluation of Three Large Scale ASP Flooding Field Test. 19th Eur. Symp. Improv. Oil Recover. 24–27 April 2017, Stavanger, Norw. 2017b.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hernandez PerezJR, LijanovaI V., DemikhovaII, LikhanovaN V., Olivares-XometlO, FalconDAL, et al.
    Emulsion flooding for enhanced oil recovery: Filtration model and numerical simulation. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 2016;143:235–244.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. HirasakiG, MillerC, PuertoM.
    Recent Advances in Surfactant EOR. SPE J. 2011;16(4):3–5.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hosseini-NasabSM, PadalkarC, BattistuttaE, ZithaPLJ.
    Mechanistic Modeling of the Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Flooding Process under Sub-optimum Salinity Conditions for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2016;55(24):6875–6888.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. HuhC.
    Interfacial tensions and solubilizing ability of a microemulsion phase that coexists with oil and brine. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1979;71(2):408–426.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. JangSH, LiyanagePJ, TagavifarM, ChangL, UpamaliKAN.
    A Systematic Method for Reducing Surfactant Retention to Extremely Low. SPE Improv. Oil Recover. Conf. held Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 11–13 April 2016. 2016. p. 1–33.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kazemi Nia KorraniA, SepehrnooriK, DelshadM.
    A Mechanistic Integrated Geochemical and Chemical Flooding Tool for Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Floods. SPE J. [Internet]. 2016;21(01):32–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. KumarR, DaoE, MohantyKK.
    Heavy-Oil Recovery by In-Situ Emulsion Formation. SPE J. 2012;17(02):24–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. LakeLW, JohnsR, RossenB, PopeG.
    Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery. 2nd ed. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers; 2014.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. LevittD, JacksonA, HeinsonC, BrittonLN, MalikT, DwarakanathV, et al.
    Identification and Evaluation of High-Performance EOR Surfactants. SPE Reserv. Eval. Eng. 2009;12(02):243–253.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. LiD, WangD, KangW.
    Interfacial Viscoelasticity Of Water / Decane Containing Resins And Asphatenes. J. Chem. Ind. Eng. 2003a;54(8):1164–1168.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. LiG, MuJ, LiY, XiaoH, GuQ.
    What is the Criterion for Selecting Alkaline / Surfactaint / Polymer Flooding Formulation?: Phase Behavior or Interfacial Tension. J. Dis. 2000;21(3):205–314.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. LiJ, ChenJ, HanM.
    Production performance characteristics of the strong alkali ASP flooding. Pet. Geol. Oilf. Dev. Daqing(P.G.O.D). 2015;34(1):91–97.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. LiS, YangZ, SongK, KangW.
    Effect of crude oil emulsion on enhanced oil recovery in alkaline surfactant polymer flooding. Acta Pet. Sin. 2003b;24(5):71–73.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. LinM, LuoX, WuZ.
    Emulsification of Crude Oil with Alkaline - Surfactant - Polymer Flooding System. Fine Chem. 2003;20(12):731–3+741.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. LiuQ, DongM, YueX, HouJ.
    Synergy of alkali and surfactant in emulsification of heavy oil in brine. Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 2006;273:219–228.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. LiuY, ZhangZ, LiaoG, LiuZ, KangW, LeJ, et al.
    The Effect of crude oil emulsion on Enhanced Oil Recovery in Alkaline Surfactant Polymer Flooding. Deterg. Cosmet. 2000;23(Supplement):124–127.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. LuJ, PopeGA.
    Optimization of Gravity-Stable Surfactant Flooding. SPE J. 2017;22(02):480–493.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. LuoX, LinM, ZhaoliangWu, LiM.
    Emulsification of Crude Oil with Alkaline - Surfactant - Polymer Flooding System. 2003;.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. MoradiM, KazempourM, FrenchJT, AlvaradoV.
    Dynamic flow response of crude oil-in-water emulsion during flow through porous media. FUEL 2014;135:38–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. OlajireAA.
    Review of ASP EOR (alkaline surfactant polymer enhanced oil recovery) technology in the petroleum industry: Prospects and challenges. Energy; 2014;77:963–982.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. PanthiK, SharmaH, MohantyKK.
    ASP flood of a viscous oil in a carbonate rock. Fuel; 2016;164:18–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. RomeroMI, CarvalhoMS, AlvaradoV.
    Experiments and network model of flow of oil-water emulsion in porous media. Phys. Rev. E - Stat. Nonlinear, Soft Matter Phys. 2011;84(4):1–8.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Seright
    . How Much Polymer Should Be Injected During a Polymer Flood?? Review of Previous and Current Practices. SPE J. 2017;22(01):1–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. SerightRS, WangD, DakotaN, LernerN, NguyenA, SabidJ, et al.
    Can 25-cp Polymer Solution Efficiently Displace 1600-cp Oil During Polymer Flooding??SPEJ. 2018:1–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. SouthwickJG, van den PolE, van RijnCHT, van BatenburgDW, BoersmaD, SvecY, et al.
    Ammonia as Alkali for Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Floods. SPE J. 2016;(April 2014):12–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. WangC.
    Emulsifying properties of composite system and its effect on oil displacement. Master thesis. 2011. Northeast Petroleum University.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. WangK, PiY, WuY, JiaoG.
    Research on the Emulsification Performance of ASP Flooding Impact on Oil Displacement Effect. Sci. Technol. Eng. 2012;12(10):2428–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. WangK, ZhangB, LiG.
    Effects of weak-alkali ASP composition on the stability of O/W emulsions. Energy Sources, Part A Recover. Util. Environ. Eff. 2019;41(4):438–50.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. WangZ, PangR, LeX, PengZ, HuZ, WangX.
    Survey on injection-production status and optimized surface process of ASP flooding in industrial pilot area. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 2013;111:178–83.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. YinX, KangW, ZhaoY, LiuJ, YangH, DaiC, et al.
    Study on the indigenous stabilization mechanism of light crude oil emulsions based on an in situ solvent-dissolution visualization method. Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 2017;530(5):155–63.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201900122
Loading
/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201900122
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error