Convective mixing in CO2 storage has been studied experimentally, numerically and theoretically using linear stability analysis. Perturbations that triggers convective fingers in these studies have been reported to be due to imperfections in experimental setup, due to numerical errors in simulations, and stated to be artificial in theoretical studies. In this work, the effect of numerical errors on the onset of convective mixing are investigated. Regions where convective downwelling fingers occur are observed to possess convergence problems. By assigning non-uniform permeability values to grid blocks near CO2 and brine interface, the numerical error in these grid blocks is exacerbated. The number of grid blocks with non-uniform permeability values affects the number of downwelling convective fingers but do not influence the time of onset of convection.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Agartan, E., Cihan, A., Illangasekare, T. H., Zhou, Q., and Birkholzer, J. T.
    (2017) ‘Mixing and Trapping of Dissolved CO 2 in Deep Geologic Formations with Shale Layers’. Advances in Water Resources105, 67–81
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Elenius, M. and Johannsen, K.
    (2012) ‘On the Time Scales of Nonlinear Instability in Miscible Displacement Porous Media Flow’. Computational Geosciences16(4), 901–911
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Green, C. P. and Ennis-King, J.
    (2014) ‘Steady Dissolution Rate due to Convective Mixing in Anisotropic Porous Media’. Advances in Water Resources73, 65–73
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Hassanzadeh, H., Keith, D. W., and Pooladi-Darvish, M.
    (2005) ‘Modelling of Convective Mixing in CO Storage’. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology44 (10)
    [Google Scholar]
  5. HIDALGO, J. J. and CARRERA, J.
    (2009) ‘Effect of Dispersion on the Onset of Convection during CO2 Sequestration’. Journal of Fluid Mechanics640, 441–452
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Kneafsey, T. J. and Pruess, K.
    (2010) ‘Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulation Studies of Convectively Enhanced Carbon Dioxide Dissolution’. Energy Procedia4, 5114–5121
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Liu, H. H. and Dane, J. H.
    (1997) ‘A Numerical Study on Gravitational Instabilities of Dense Aqueous Phase Plumes in Three-Dimensional Porous Media’. Journal of Hydrology194 (1), 126–142
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Pau, G. S. H., Bell, J. B., Pruess, K., Almgren, A. S., Lijewski, M. J., and Zhang, K.
    (2010) ‘High-Resolution Simulation and Characterization of Density-Driven Flow in CO 2 Storage in Saline Aquifers’. Advances in Water Resources33 (4), 443–455
    [Google Scholar]
  9. RIAZ, A., HESSE, M., TCHELEPI, H. A., and ORR, F. M.
    (2006) ‘Onset of Convection in a Gravitationally Unstable Diffusive Boundary Layer in Porous Media’. Journal of Fluid Mechanics548 (1), 87–111
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Schlumberger
    . 2014. Eclipse-300 Reservoir SimulatorTaheri, A., Wessel-Berg, D., and Torsæter, O. (eds.) (2015) . ‘Prediction of the Minimum Onset Time for Convection in a Gravitationally Unstable Diffusive Boundary Layer using a Finite Difference Pressure Solver’: SPE
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Xu, X., Chen, S., and Zhang, D.
    (2006) ‘Convective Stability Analysis of the Long-Term Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Deep Saline Aquifers’. Advances in Water Resources29 (3), 397–407
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error