The case for Amplitude vs Angle geophysical techniques being used to assess the presence of, and infer the properties of shales is a relatively young science with many rock physics models being published within the last decade. The science is based on the observation that variations in shale properties both, and in this paper specifically TOC (Total Organic Content), will affect the shales bulk rock properties and therefore seismic response. Presented is the background theory demonstrating that AVA class IV anomalies should be observed in high TOC shales and an AVA case study demonstrating a class IV anomaly observed in the Kudu Shale, Namibia, West Africa.


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