1887

Abstract

Summary

In this paper, we evaluate effectiveness of the multi-frequency multi-offset controlled-source electromagnetic method (CSEM) for mineral exploration and compare it with the conventional controlled-source audio-magnetotelluric (CSAMT) and direct-current (DC) methods. To conduct this study, we have developed three-dimensional inversion code, based on a finite-difference forward solver with the contraction-operator preconditioner, leveraged with OpenMP/MPI parallelization. A detailed three-dimensional conductivity model of shale-hosted Sukhoi Log gold deposit has been created based on the results of the extensive drilling program. For each method, we performed 3D inversion of synthetic data. Our results suggest that, the use of a dense 3D CSEM data increases the quality of model reconstruction, comparing to the DC and, especially, CSAMT methods. In our example, the improvement of the CSEM method over a conventional DC method may be not enough to justify the substantially higher cost of the CSEM survey and computational resources; however, in a less resistive environment this observation may change. The overall conclusion is that, a properly designed electromagnetic survey together with the modern three-dimensional inversion could provide detailed information about the structure of a mineral deposit.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201901158
2019-06-03
2020-03-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. 1.Bretaudeau, F., Coppo, N., Wawrzyniak, P. and Penz, S. [2017]. 3D Land CSEM Inversion with a Single Transmiter Position, in 79th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, EAGE.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2.Chave, A. and Jones, A. (Eds.) [2012]. The Magnetotelluric Method: Theory and Practice, Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3.Grayver, A., Streich, R. and Ritter, O. [2014]. 3D inversion and resolution analysis of land-based CSEM data from the Ketzin CO2 storage formation, Geophysics, 79(2), E101–E114.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4.Loke, M.H., Chambers, J.E., Rucker, D.F., KurasO. and Wilkinson, P.B., 2013, Recent developments in the direct-current geoelectrical imaging method: J. Appl. Geophys., 95, 135–156.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5.Malovichko, M., Yavich, N., Khokhlov, N. and Zhdanov, M. [2018]. On the Optimal Strategy of Three-Dimensional Inversion of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Data, in 2nd Conference on Geophysics for Mineral Exploration and Mining, EAGE.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6.Schaller, A., Streich, R., Drijkoningen, G., Ritter, O. and Slob, E. [2018]. A land-based controlled-source electromagnetic method for oil field exploration: An example from the Schoonebeek oil field, Geophysics, 83(2), WB1–WB17.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7.Shore, G. A. [2017]. Very large-scale 3D DC resistivity mapping: inferring the location of deep structural feeders beneath surface hot-spring manifistations, in Proceedings of Exploration 17: Sixth decennial international conference on mining exploration, DMEC.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8.Streich., R., Becken, M., Matzander, U. and Ritter, O. [2011]. Strategies for land-based controlled-source electromagnetic surveying in high-noise regions, The Leading Edge, 30, 1174–1181.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9.Tietze, K., Ritter, O. and Veeken, P. [2015]. Controlled-source electromagnetic monitoring of reservoir oilsaturation using a novel borehole-to-surface configuration, Geophys. Prospecting, 63, pp.1468–1490.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10.Wirianto, M., Mulder, W.A. and Slob, E.C. [2010]. A feasibility study of land CSEM reservoir monitoring in a complex 3-D model, Geophys. J. Int., 181, pp.741–755.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11.Wood, B. L. and Popov, N. P. [2006]. The giant Sukhoi Log deposit, Siberia, Russ. Geol. Geophys., 47(3), pp. 315–341.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12.Yavich, N. and Zhdanov, M. S. [2016]. Contraction pre-conditioner in finite-difference electromagnetic modelling, Geophys. J. Int., 206(3), pp. 1718–1729.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13.Yavich, N., Malovichko, M., Khokhlov, N. and Zhdanov, M. [2017]. Advanced method of FD electromagnetic modeling based on contraction operator, 79th EAGE Conference and Exhibition 2017, EAGE.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14.Zhdanov, M. S. [2002]. Geophysical inverse theory and regularization problems, Elsevier.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15.Zhdanov, M.S. [2018]. Foundations of geophysical electromagnetic theory and methods, Elsevier.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201901158
Loading
/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201901158
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error