Compared to surface geophones, the use of permanently buried geophone arrays for reservoir monitoring provides a number of advantages, such as higher signal to noise ratio and reduced acquisition time. However, such installations are costly, and hence the number of seismic receivers relatively small. This effect can be mitigated by increased density of seismic sources, which increases the data quality but also the cost and invasiveness of the survey. The latter is especially important for the cases where 4D seismic is deployed in sensitive land areas. Thus, it is important to understand the trade-off between the data quality and the source effort. In this study we use the 4D seismic data acquired in Stage 2C of the CO2CRC Otway Project to investigate this.


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