Seismic waves decay due to geometrical spreading (in 2D and 3D) and scattering (energy is conserved), and anelastic -- or intrinsic -- attenuation (energy is lost to heat). Amplitude decay in the last two cases is accompanied with wave-velocity dispersion, by which each Fourier component of the signal travels with a different phase velocity (Kramers-Kronig relations). Attenuation can be described by a phenomenological (non-predictive) theory, as the Burgers mechanical model -- composed of springs and dashpots --, or with predictive models, such as the scattering theory, and the Biot and related models of poroelasticity (wave-induced fluid-flow attenuation). Another phenomenological approach is the use of temporal or spatial fractional derivatives, e.g., Kjartansson and Cole-Cole models. In the following, I present a brief overview on the various attenuation mechanisms, where most of the material refers to .


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