Seismic reflection amplitude variation with offset and azimuth (AVOaz) provides a traditional technique to detect fracture in the subsurface and deduce their properties. AVOaz relies on the Effective Medium Theory (EMT) which treats the fractured formation as anisotropic medium. The underlying assumption of EMT is that the fractures are uniformly disturbed and sufficiently close such that only specular reflections from the boundaries of the fractures are observed. In contrast, for randomly spaced fractures clustering takes place and individual scattering occurs, and the assumptions of effective medium theory are violated.


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