This work illustrates three representative cases of the integration of 3D CSEM derived resistivity with seismic data within the top seal section with the aim of investigating the resistivity response of top seals that (i) have failed, (ii) work, and (iii) are leaky but can still contain hydrocarbons in the prospect. In the past 10 years, CSEM has been used in exploration programs of various offshore basins throughout the world where many wells have been drilled. Although CSEM data have too low resolution to determine the properties close or at the seal reservoir interface, we are getting information from the bulk rock properties of the top seal rock lithology. This has provided a significant number of case examples where the resistivity of the top seal section can be investigated and related to exploration outcome. This integration has shed light on typical patterns of expressions of seismic and resistivity for discoveries vs. failures. We present three such case examples and conclude that the integration of resistivity with seismic allows to enhance our understanding of top seal by providing information on fluid distribution and containment.


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