1887

Abstract

Summary

Estimating the root density of mature trees is of high importance as the root system is a robust indicator of both the health status and the structural integrity of a tree. With this in mind, a multi-stage data processing scheme is proposed using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to achieve an effective estimation of the root density of trees. The proposed framework is divided into three main chronological steps. Initially, ringing noise is removed using a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) filter prior to a frequency-wavenumber (F-K) migration. Subsequently, a tracking algorithm is applied to the processed data in an effort to identify patterns associated with roots. Lastly, the found patterns are expressed as continuous and differentiable functions from which the root density is derived. To demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach, a case study is presented in order to identify the root system and map the overall density of the roots of a mature tree. The algorithm is commercially appealing with minimum computational and operational requirements for large-scale forestry applications.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201902564
2019-09-08
2020-02-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. A.Eshel and T.Beeckman
    , Plant roots: the hidden half, 3rd ed. ed., New York: Marcel Dekker, 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. J. D.Deans
    , “Dynamics of Coarse Root Production in a Young Plantation of Picea sitchensis,” Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, vol. 54, pp. 139–155, 1981.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. S. G.Pallardy
    , Physiology of woody plants, Academic Press, 2010.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. B. F.Wilson
    , “Structure and growth of woody roots of Acer rubrum L.,” 1964.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. A.Stokes, A. H.Fitter and M. P.Courts
    , “Responses of young trees to wind and shading: effects on root architecture,” Journal of Experimental Botany, pp. 1139–1146, 1995.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. J. L.Innes
    , Forest health: its assessment and status, Cab International, 1993.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. S. C.Resh, M.Battaglia, D.Woledge and S.Ladiges
    , “Coarse root biomass for eucalypt plantations in Tasmania, Australia: sources of variation and methods for assessment,” Trees, vol. 17, pp. 389–399, 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. D. B.Stover, F. R.Day, J. R.Butnor and D. G.Drake
    , “Effect of Elevated CO2 on Coarse-Root Biomass in Florida Scrub Detected by Ground-Penetrating Radar,” Ecology, vol. 88, pp. 1328–1334, 2007.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. B. W.Brassard, H. Y. H.Chen, Y.Bergeron and D.Par
    , “Coarse root biomass allometric equations for Abies balsamea, Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, and Populus tremuloides in the boreal forest of Ontario, Canada,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35, pp. 4189–4196, 2011.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. J.Cermak, J.Hruska, M.Martinkova and A.Prax
    , “Urban tree root systems and their survival near houses analyzed using ground penetrating radar and sap flow techniques,” Plant and Soil, vol. 219, pp. 103–116, 2000.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. B.Reubens, J.Poesen, F.Danjon, G.Geudens and B.Muys
    , “The role of fine and coarse roots in shallow slope stability and soil erosion control with a focus on root system architecture: a review,” Trees, vol. 21, pp. 385–402, 2007.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. L.Guo, J.Chen, X.Cui, B.Fan and H.Lin
    , “Application of ground penetrating radar for coarse root detection and quantification: a review,” Plant and soil, pp. 1–23, 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. J.Cermak, N.Nadezhdina, L.Meiresonne and R.Ceulemans
    , “Scots pine root distribution derived from radial sap flow patterns in stems of large leaning trees,” Plant and Soil, vol. 305, pp. 61–75, 2008.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. P. J.Gregory, D. J.Hutchison, D. B.Read, P. M.Jenneson, W. B.Gilboy and E. J.Morton
    , “Non-invasive imaging of roots with high resolution X-ray micro-tomorgaphy,” Plant and Soil, vol. 255, pp. 351–359, 2003.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. C. J.Moran, A.Pierret and A. W.Stevenson
    , “X-ray absorption and phase contrast imaging to study the interplay between plant roots and soil structure,” Plant and Soil, vol. 223, pp. 99–115, 2000.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. C. M.Paglis
    , “Application of electrical resistivity tomography for detecting root biomass in coffe trees,” International Journal of Geophysics, 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. M.Amato, B.Basso, G.Celano, G.Bitella, G.Morelli and R.Rossi
    , “In situ detection of tree root distribution and biomass by multi-electrode resistivity imaging,” Tree Physiology, vol. 28, pp. 1441–1448, 2008.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. M.Amato, G.Bitella, R.Rossi, J. A.Gomez, S.Lovelli and J. J. F.Gomes
    , “Multi-electrode 3D resistivity imaging of alfalfa root zone,” European Journal of Agronomy, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 213–222, 2009.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. A.Loperte, A.Satriani, L.Lazzari, M.Amato, G.Celano, V.Lapenna and G.Morelli
    , “2D and 3D high resolution geoelectrical tomography for non-destructive determination of the spatial variability of plant root distribution: laboratory experiments and field measurements,” Geophysical Research Abstracts, vol. 8, p. 674, 2006.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. U.Weihs, V.Dubbel, F.Krummheuer and A.Just
    , “The electrical resistivity tomographya promising technique for detection of colored heartwood on standing beech trees,” Forst Und Holz, vol. 54, pp. 166–170, 1999.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. P.Tsourlos
    , “Modelling, interpretation and inversion of multielectrode resistivity survey data,” 1995.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. D. J.Daniels
    , Ed., Ground penetrating radar, 2004.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. I.Giannakis, A.Giannopoulos and C.Warren
    , “A Realistic FDTD Numerical Modeling Framework of Ground Penetrating Radar for Landmine Detection,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 37–51, 2016.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. I.Giannakis, S.Xu, P.Aubry, A.Yarovoy and J.Sala
    , “Signal processing for landmine detection using ground penetrating radar,” in Proc. IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Beijing, 2016.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. F.Tosti, C. L.Bianchini, F.D’Amico, A. M.Alani and A.Benedetto
    , “An experimental-based model for the assessment of the mechanical properties of road pavements using ground-penetrating radar,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 165, pp. 966–974, 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. A. M.Alani and F.Tosti
    , “GPR applications in structural detailing of a major tunnel using different frequency antenna systems,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 158, pp. 1111–1122, 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. A. M.Alani, M.Aboutalebi and G.Kilic
    , “Applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in bridge deck monitoring and assessment,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 97, pp. 45–54, 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. J.Hruska, J.Cermak and S.Sustek
    , “Mapping tree root systems with ground-penetrating radar,” Tree Physiology, vol. 19, pp. 125–130, 1999.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. C. V. M.Barton and K.Montagu
    , “Detection of tree roots and determination of root diameters by ground penetrating radar under optimal condition,” Tree Physiology, pp. 1323–1331, 2005.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. J. R.Butnor, J. A.Doolittle, K. H.Johnsen, L.Samuelson, T.Stokes and L.Kress
    , “Utility of ground-penetrating radar as a root biomass survey tool in forest systems,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, pp. 1607–1615, 2003.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. A.Stokes, T.Fourcaud, J.Hruska, J.Cermak, N.Nadyezdhina, V.Nadyezhdin and L.Praus
    , “An evaluation of different methods to investigate root system architecture of urban trees in situ: I. Ground-penetrating radar,” Journal of Arboriculture, pp. 2–10, 2002.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. A. M.Alani, L. BianchiniCiampoli, L.Lantini, F.Tosti and A.Benedetto
    , “Mapping the root system of matured trees using ground penetrating radar,” in 17th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, 18–21 Jun 2018, Rapperswil, Switzerland, 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. F.Tosti, L. BianchiniCiampoli, M. G.Brancadoro and A. M.Alani
    , “GPR applications in mapping the subsurface root system of street trees with road safety-critical implications,” Advances in transportation studies, 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. L.Lantini, R.Holleworth, D.Egyir, I.Giannakis, F.Tosti and A. M.Alani
    , “Use of ground penetrating radar for assessing interconnections between root systems of different matured tree species,” in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Metrology for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, Cassino, Italy, 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. H.Kim, S. J.Cho and M. J.Yi
    , “Removal of ringing noise in GPR data by signal processing,” Geosciences Journal, vol. 11, pp. 75–81, 2007.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. R. H.Stolt
    , “Migration by Fourier transform,” Geophysics, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 23–48, 1978.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201902564
Loading
/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201902564
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error