A steady-state compositional flow model has been developed for simulating the injection of condensed steam together with non-condensable gases (NCGs). All fluids are originated from a high enthalpy subsurface source, and after the recuperation of their energy in a geothermal power plant they must be reinjected back into the earth for controlling the emissions of greenhouse and toxic gases. For high content of NCGs in the initial geothermal fluid and reinjection of the totality of the fluids, the dissolution of the gas into the liquid phase is partial and a two-phase mixture must be injected. Targeting a low pressure (depleted) reservoir for the injection can result in a liquid column inside the well which is far for the surface in a depth of several hundreds of meters. The model considers a prototype well completion which overcomes these restrictions by injecting separately the water and the NCGs, and by mixing the two phases in a certain depth while ensuring the downward flow of the mixture.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Bhagwat, S.M. and Ghajar, A.J.
    [2014] A Flow Pattern Independent Drift Flux Model Based Void Fraction Correlation for a Wide Range of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow.International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 59, 186–205.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Burton, M. and Bryant, S.L.
    [2009] Surface Dissolution: Minimizing Ground Water Impact and Leakage Risk Simultaneously.Energy Procedia, 1, 3707–3714.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Galore, C., Pruess, I.C. and Gelati, R.
    [1986] Modeling Studies of Cpld Water Injection into Fluid-Depleted, Vapor-Dominated Geothermal Reservoirs.11th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, California.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Diaz, A.R., Kaya, E. and Zarrouk, S.J.
    [2016] Reinjection in Geothermal Fields - A Worldwide Review Update.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 53, 105–162.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Eke, P.E., Naylor, M., Haszeldine, S. and Curtis, A.
    [2011] CO2-Brine Surface Dissolution and Injection: CO2 Storage Enhancement.SPE Projects, Facilities & Construction, 6, 41–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Elldakli, F.
    [2017] Gas Lift System.Petroleum & Petrochemical Engineering Journal, 1, 000121.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hoteit, H., Fahs, M. and Soltanian, M.R.
    [2019] Assessment of CO2 Injectivity During Sequestration in Depleted Gas Reservoirs.Geosciences, 9, 199–218.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Lokanathan, M. and Hibiki, T.
    [2018] Flow Regime Transition Criteria for Co-Current Downward Two-Phase Flow.Progress in Nuclear Energy, 103, 165–175.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Perreaux, M., Gainville, M. and Jeannin, L.
    [2020] Procede et Systeme d’injection de Gaz en Sous-Sol.FR Patent3,087,475.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Shafaei, M.J., Abedi, J., Hassanzadeh, H. and Chen, Z.
    [2012] Reverse Gas-Lift Technology for CO2 Storage into Deep Saline Aquifers.Energy, 45, 840–849.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Sigfusson, B., Gislason, S.R., Matter, J.M., Stute, M., Gunnlaugsson, E., Gunnarsson, I., Aradottir, E.S., Sigurdardottir, H., Mesfin, K., Alfredsson, H.A., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Arnarsson, M.T. and Oelkers, E.H.
    [2015] Solving the Carbon-Dioxide Buoyancy Challenge: The Design and Field Testing of a Dissolved CO2 Injection System.International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 37, 213–219.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Stacey, R.W., Norris, L. and Lisi, S.
    [2016] OLGA Modeling Results for Single Well Reinjection of Non-Condensable Gases (NCGs) and Water.GRC Transactions, 40, 931–939.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Yao, G., Li, H., Xue, Y., Liu, X. and Hao, C.
    [2018] Investigation on the Frictional Pressure Drop of Gas Liquid Two-Phase Flows in Vertical Downward Tubes.International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 91, 138–149.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error