We developed a controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) forward modeling scheme based on a particle method to simulate electromagnetic fields. As a particle method, we used the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method. In MPS method, the choice of particle distribution has large arbitrariness. Since numerical accuracy and computational load depend highly on the number of particles and their distribution, the choice of particle distribution is important. We select non-staggered and staggered particle distributions to compare the numerical accuracy and computational load. As a result, the numerical accuracy of two kinds of particle distributions is almost the same as each other if the spatial interval is equivalent. Because the number of particles required in the staggered particle distribution becomes half that in the non-staggered particle distribution, we conclude that staggered particle placement is numerically effective than the non-staggered.


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