During February and March, 2003, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted tests of the<br>time-domain Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) system and the frequency-domain High<br>Frequency Sounder (HFS) at the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP)<br>Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Standardized Test Site at the Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. An<br>objective of these tests was to assess the potential of these systems for UXO applications and to help us<br>formulate design parameters for an improved electromagnetic system designed specifically for UXO.<br>Although neither VETEM nor the HFS was designed with UXO applications in mind, both detected the<br>majority of the buried targets in the Calibration Area at YPG. VETEM responded to earth conductivity<br>as well as to the buried UXO objects as did the HFS above 20 kHz. Earth response was anticipated<br>because both VETEM and the HFS were designed to image earth conductivity. Spatial filtering reduced<br>earth response and system artifacts and enhanced target responses.<br>We have concluded that a modified “on-time” time-domain system with a multi-component<br>antenna array and the ability to measure to later times than VETEM provides could improve the<br>detection performance we obtained from VETEM and the HFS at YPG. In addition, such a system<br>would furnish the diverse temporal, spatial, and vector component data that should optimize the<br>potential for UXO target discrimination and identification.


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