Fluid-inclusion analysis was conducted from onshore and offshore fields in Saudi Arabia, supported by detailed petrography and integration with existing geochemistry, reservoir and sedimentological data. The objectives were to determine the temperature of thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) and H2S generation, petroleum phases and API, gas-to-oil ratio (GOR) of liquid petroleum in inclusions, as well as filling history. Results confirmed that H2S in the Khuff Formation is due to TSR. The absolute<br>quantity of produced H2S is reflected by the quantity of anhydrite that was converted to calcite, and was taken to suggest degree of TSR advancement. Petrographic and fluid-inclusion data suggested that TSR was controlled by temperatures, distribution of finely disseminated anhydrite and hydrocarbon liquid or gas phase in the Khuff reservoirs. Fluid-inclusion analysis revealed that the initial charge was oil, later displaced by condensate and dry gas. The analysis also showed that TSR occurred at temperature between 110° and 135° C. Oil found as inclusions is consistent with the emplacement of a maturity-controlled sequence beginning with 35° API oil through to a 55° API oil at temperatures of up to 140° C, with methane-dominant gas emplacement above 140° C<br>to approximately 155° C. The absence of oil inclusions in other wells could be due to: (1) oil never having resided in the Khuff Formation in these wells because they were too deep for a palaeo-oil floor, or the lack of source rock in local areas for the reservoir; (2) an insufficient number of samples were examined to find rare oil inclusions; (3) oil, initially trapped, leaked-out of inclusions into free pore space and was then diluted by gas; and/or (4) oil cracking to gas within fluid inclusions.


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