The cross-disciplinary, multi-tool modelling and simulation approach we pursue on the Amellago Canyon platform carbonate outcrop (High Atlas, Morocco) aims at a rigorous characterization of stratigraphy, petrology, structure and flow, trying to capture a maximum of geological features of layered carbonate NFRs so that DFM simulation can reveal what level of detail has to be resolved for predictive simulation of reservoir behaviour / determination of equivalent properties by means of flow-based upscaling. This question of model convergence towards a sufficient level of realism is addressed by comparison of results obtained from a hierarchy of thin vertical slab models: Model (1) a coarse model with faults and fracture corridors only; Model (2) an intermediate model adding multi-layer fractures including the WE striking set with stylolitic overprint, and Model (3) a fine model also including different sets of bed-confined fractures. These DFM models are unique because they are largely deterministic: fractures are interpreted from the LiDAR survey data, including texture-mapped high-resolution photographic images. Bed confined fractures seem to contribute significantly to the equivalent permeability only when they intersect more continuous fractures, like in the fracture corridors or multi-layer fractures spanning low permeability layers.


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