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Abstract

The paper reviews the main barriers to realizing large-scale CO2 storage projects and proposes ways forward towards implementation. The main barriers are grouped into three classes: economics, capacity and safety. Three general solutions are reviewed: a) Resolving the economic challenges via integrated CO2 EOR and storage solutions; b) Resolving the capacity limitations by developing pressure-managed injection solutions; c) Addressing concerns about long-term safety of geological storage of CO2 by developing our understanding of flow processes and implementing cost-effective monitoring approaches. None of these issues can be resolved independently. However, it is argued that cost-effective technical solutions can be developed assuming that society wants large-scale CO2 storage as an essential component of low-carbon energy solutions. Without a societal demand for large-scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) it is clear that little progress will be made. However, assuming that there will be a growing value assigned to low-carbon energy technologies, there is little doubt that technically robust solutions to large-scale CO2 storage (at the 10-100 Million tonnes of CO2 per annum level) can be achieved.

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/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.20140067
2014-04-22
2022-08-09
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http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.20140067
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