The calculation of pseudo relative permeabilities using fine-scale simulations is time consuming. However, if we can assume that a system is close to a steady-state, this process can be speeded up considerably. Frequently, the capillary equilibrium limit is assumed at small scales (30 cm or less), when the flood rate is low. At high flow rates and larger distance scales, capillary pressure effects may be negligible, and we may use a viscous-dominated steady-state method which assumes constant fractional flow. Steady-state pseudos may also be calculated at intermediate flow rates using fine scale simulations, and allowing the flood to come into equilibrium at different fractional flow levels.


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