Much of the recent petroleum exploration and development activities in the US and around the world have focused on unconventional resources, which predominantly consist of low-permeability siltstones and shale reservoirs. Although several geophysical methods have been applied to map the fractures from the deformation or the induced microseismic events that they cause, these methods do not image the sections of the fractures held open by injected proppant. This is where electromagnetics (EM) can help. We investigate EM methods of imaging and monitoring induced fractures from the distribution of a proppant. Here, we apply some novel field technologies, effective medium theory, and a modified proppant mix to image the propped section of an induced fracture. The 3D simulation shows that a “typical” induced fracture is visible using surface-to-well EM techniques and that the measurement depends on the height and areal extent of the fractured volume


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