1887

Abstract

Summary

Imaging of steeply-dipping or overturned salt-flanks is still a challenge for conventional migration techniques applied to surface seismic data. In the past, walkaway Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) data has proven to add value in mapping or imaging the steep salt-boundaries. In this paper, we discuss an extension of the Full Wavefield Migration (FWM) scheme to image salt-flanks using the turning waves in VSP data. FWM is an inversion-based imaging algorithm, that utilizes all the multiples (surface and internal multiples) in the observed unblended or blended VSP data to explain the subsurface reflectivity. The extended FWM uses both vertical and horizontal wavefield extrapolation in the imaging scheme and, therefore, is able to image complex and steep-dip structures. In this paper, we briefly discuss the forward modelling and inversion scheme, followed by some numerical examples to illustrate the imaging of steep structures. These examples involve both unblended and blended VSP experiments, and also illustrate the effect of complex overburden in the imaging of salt-flanks.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201412733
2015-06-01
2020-06-01
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Berkhout, A.J.
    [2014] Review paper: An outlook on the future seismic imaging, part2: Full-wavefield migration. Geophysical Prospecting, 62(5), 931–949.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Brandsberg-Dahl, S., Gestel, J.P.V., Etgen, J.T. and Hornby, B.
    [2003] VSP salt flank imaging through wavefield continuation. EAGE, Eur. Ass. of Geosc. and Eng., Expanded abstracts, Stavanger.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Buur, J. and Kühnel, T.
    [2008] Salt interpretation enabled by reverse time migration. Geophysics, 73(5), VE211–VE216.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Davydenko, M. and Verschuur, D.J.
    [2013] Full wavefield migration without dip limitation - using duplex waves in the imaging with multiples. EAGE, Eur. Ass. of Geosc. and Eng., Expanded abstracts, London, We P02 09.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. [2014] Omnidirectional extension of full wavefield migration. EAGE, Eur. Ass. of Geosc. and Eng., Expanded abstracts, Amsterdam.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Hestenes, M.R. and Stiefel, E.
    [1952] Methods of conjugate gradients for solving linear systems. J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand., 49, 409–436.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Schuster, G.T.
    [2009] Seismic Interferometry. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Soni, A.K. and Verschuur, D.J.
    [2013] Imaging blended VSP data using full wavefield migration. SEG, Soc. of Expl. Geophys., Expanded abstracts, Houston, 5046–5051.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. [2014] Full wavefield migration of vertical seismic profiling data: using all multiples to extend the illumination area. Geophysical Prospecting, 62(4), 740–759.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Soni, A.K., Verschuur, D.J. and Davydenko, M.
    [2014] Full wavefield migration to image salt-flanks using an unblended and blended vsp data. SEG, Soc. Expl. Geophys., Expanded abstracts, Denver, 5085–5091.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Whitmore, N.D. and Lines, L.R.
    [1986] Vertical seismic profiling depth migration of a salt dome flank. Geophysics, 51(5), 1087–1109.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201412733
Loading
/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201412733
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error