For safe and efficient design and construction of structures, as well as for environmental and hydrogeological reasons, lateral variations in the shallow subsurface are important targets of investigation. A lack of knowledge of the lateral continuity or discontinuity of shallow soil layers or of lateral change in the physical nature of a layer has caused serious accidents in the past. Significant increase in the construction cost and unacceptable delays are also common. There are occasions when localized discontinuities in the clay cap layer have caused contamination of pure water at greater depths.


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