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Abstract

Accelerated Deployment of Low Salinity Waterflooding in Shell Low Salinity Waterflooding (LSF) is an emerging IOR/EOR technology that improves microscopic sweep efficiency by optimizing the injection water salinity. Although the exact microscopic mechanism is not yet fully understood, there is increasing evidence that in sandstones LSF improves the oil recovery by wettability alteration of the reservoir rock towards a more water-wet state. Typical field scale incremental oil recoveries are estimated to be up to 6% STOIIP. Despite these beneficial factors, LSF deployment can be a slow process. This paper discusses the key factors that help accelerate LSF deployment in Shell. A key enabler for technology deployment acceleration is Shell’s decision-driven opportunity realization process (ORP). Within this framework, the deployment starts with a portfolio screening using a consistent set of surface and subsurface screening criteria, to rank and prioritize the opportunities (according to probability of success). For each identified opportunity, a key next step is to perform reservoir condition SCAL tests, for which Shell has developed a comprehensive protocol to assess and quantify the LSF effect, while de-risking the potential for injectivity loss through clay swelling. These protocols have been standardized and incorporated into the general WF guidelines, so that any suitable new WF project conducts LSF SCAL. For mature waterfloods, this SCAL program also provides the operating units with reservoir condition relperm data, which helps to refine history matching and forecasting, enabling an optimal management of their waterfloods. While SCAL is started as early as possible in the ORP, it is accompanied, in parallel, by facilities design, production forecasting and project economics. In particular, the standardization of the facilities design, including cost models, for various offshore and onshore options, plays a key role in accelerating the deployment effort. In Shell, LSF is currently at different stages of deployment around the world and across the whole spectrum of WF projects, from the rejuvenation of brown fields to green field developments, both offshore and onshore assets. Integrated surface and subsurface technology teams are currently taking the lead, working in close cooperation with R&D and individual asset teams. While LSF is a natural extension of WF, this deployment effort is combined with screening for other EOR technologies, to identify where LSF may be able to unlock additional value by creating the appropriate conditions for subsequent chemical flooding.

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/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.20142598
2013-04-16
2021-09-28
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http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.20142598
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