1887

Abstract

Summary

Polymer flooding has proven to be an effective technique to improve oil recovery from mature reservoirs. The selection of polymer, focusing mainly on its temperature tolerance properties and its ability to propagate in porous media, is key to achieve a successful EOR job. This selection also depends on brine injection compositions that covers a large range of salinities and hardness worldwide. A screening of viscosity behavior with different polymers in different brine conditions is obviously helpful in order to select the most cost effective chemistry.

The impact of different acrylamide based polymer chemistries is evaluated through viscosity measurement over a wide range of salinities and hardness. A parameter called R+, corresponding to the molar ratio of divalent cations divided by the total mole number of cations in the brine is introduced. Salt tolerance and hardness tolerance of polymers in solutions are evaluated for brine considering either constant Total Dissolved Salt (TDS) with different R+ either the impact of different total salinities for constant R+. This parameter is as well considered to compare shear stability of the different polymers. At least, the impact of the type of divalent cations on viscosity is reported.

Polymers from the study are all anionic and acrylamide based. The introduction of different amounts of sulfonated monomer (ATBS) was performed and its impact on hardness and shear tolerance was assessed. For all the polymers, a threshold beyond which viscosity remains constant is reached for R+> 0,5. Interestingly, this threshold is obtained for lower value of R+ for polymers containing ATBS since they provide better calcium tolerance. Calcium provides a higher impact on viscosity compared to magnesium for all the polymers studied. Increasing the amount of ATBS leads to higher tolerance to divalent cations. It also provides better stability to shear degradation. A minimum amount of sulfonated monomer is required to improve stability.

The objective of this paper is to complete guidelines in the selection of industrial polymers considering a wide range of salinities and hardness. The screening of brine and polymers selected for this study is wide enough to represent worldwide injection brine conditions and helps selecting the most appropriate chemistry for each reservoir condition.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201700333
2017-04-24
2021-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Al-Saadi, F.S., Amri, B.A., Nofli, S, Wunnik, J.V., Jaspers, H.F., Harthi, S., Shauili, K., Cherukupalli, P.K. and Chakravarthi, R.
    , Polymer Flooding in a Large Field in South Oman - Initial Results and Future Plans. Paper SPE 154665 presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia. Muscat, Oman, 16–18 April 2012.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. API-RP-63: American Petroleum Institure
    . Recommended Practices for Evaluation of Polymers Used in Enhanced Oi Recovery., Washington, D.C., 1st June, 1990
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Clemens, T., Deckers, M., Kornberger, M., Gumpenberger, T., Zechner, M.
    , Polymer Solution Injection - Near Wellbore Dynamics and Displacement Efficiency, Pilot Test Results, Matzen Field, Austria. Paper SPE 164904 presented at EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, London, 10–13 June 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Delamaide, E., Bazin, B., Rousseau, D.
    , Chemical EOR for Heavy Oil: the Canadian Experience, Paper SPE 169715 presented at the SPE Oil and Gas West Asia Conference, Muscat, Oman, 31 March-2 April 2014.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Delamaide, E., Zaitoun, A., Renard, G., Tabary, R.
    , Pelican Lake Field: First Successful Application of Polymer Flooding in a Heavy Oil Reservoir, Paper SPE 165234 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia2–4 July 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Gaillard, N., Giovannetti, B., Favero, C., Caritey, J.P., Dupuis, G., Zaitoun, A.
    , New Water Soluble NVP Acrylamide Terpolymers for Use in EOR in Harsh Conditions, Paper SPE 169108 presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 12–16 April 2014.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Gaillard, N., Giovannetti, B., Favero, C.
    , Improved Oil Recovery Using Thermally and Chemically Protected Compositions based on co- and ter-Polymers Containing Acrylamide. Paper SPE 129756 presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 24–28 April 2010.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gaillard, N., Giovannetti, B., Leblanc, T., Thomas, A., Braun, O., Favero, C.
    , Selection of Customized Polymers to Enhance Recovery of High Temperature Reservoirs, Paper SPE 177073, presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Quito, Ecuador, 18–20 November 2015
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hashmet, M.R., Onur, M., Tan, I.M.
    , Empirical Correlations for Viscosity of Polyacrylamide Solutions with the Effects of Salinity and Hardness. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 35: 510–517, 2014.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Jouenne, S., Chakibi, H., Levitt, D.
    , Polymer Stability Following Successive Mechanical Degradation Events, Paper presented at the 19th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Dresden, Germany, 14–16 April 2015.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Laoroongroj, A., Gumpenberger, T., Clemens, T.
    , Polymer Flood Incremental Oil Recovery and Efficiency in Layered Reservoirs Including Non-Newtonian and Viscoelastic Effects. Paper SPE 170657 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference, Amsterdam, 27–29 April 2014.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Manichand, R.N., Moe Soe Let, K.P., Gil, L., Quillien, B., Seright, R.S.
    , Effective Propagation of HPAM Solutions through the Tambaredjo Reservoir during a Polymer Flood, SPE Production & Operations, 28(4): 358–368, 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Moradi-Araghi, A. and Doe, P.H.
    , Hydrolysis and Precipitation of Polyacrylamide in Hard Brines at Elevated Temperatures. SPE Reservoir Engineering, 2(2): 189–198, 1987.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Morel, D.C., Zaugg, E., Jouenne, S., Danquigny, A., Cordelier, P.R.
    , Dalia/Camelia Polymer Injection in Deep Offshore Field Angola Learnings and in Situ Polymer Sampling Results, Paper SPE 174699 presented at the SPE EOR conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 11–13 August 2015
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Pandey, A., Suresh, K.M., Jha, M.K., Tandon, R., Punnapully, B.S., Kalugin, M., Khare, A., Beliveau, D.
    , Chemical EOR Pilot in Mangala Field: Results of Initial Polymer Flood Phase. Paper SPE 154159 presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery SymposiumnTulsa, Oklahoma. 14–18 April 2012.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. PizzinelliC.S., MasseranoF., DresdaS., CiminoR., BraccalentiE., El-RahmanA.A.
    , Polymer Injection: EOR Application in North African Field from Lab Analysis to Project Start up, Paper OMC-2015-250 presented at the 12th Offshore Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition, Ravenna, Italy, 25–27 March 2015.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Stavland, A., Asen, S.M., Mebratu, A., Gathier, F.
    , Impact of Choke Valves on the IOR Polymer Flooding: Lessons Learned from Large Scale Tests, Paper IEA-EOR 2016 presented at the 37th Annual Workshop & Symposium, Rueil-Malmaison, France, 18–22 September 2016.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Stavland, A., Jonsbraten, H., Strand, D.
    , When will Polymer Viscosity be a Design Criterion for EOR Polymer Flooding?, Paper IEA-EOR 2013 presented at the 34th Annual Symposium, Stavanger, Norway, 8–11 September 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Thomas, A., Gaillard, N., Favero, C.
    , Some Key Features to Consider When Studying Acrylamide-Based Polymers for Chemicals Enhanced Oil Recovery, Oil & Gas Science and Technology – Rev. IFP Energies nouvelles, 1–16, Jan 2013
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Vermolen, E.C.M., Van Haasterecht, M.J.T., Masalmeh, S.K., Faber, M.J., Boersma, D.M., Gruenenfelder, M.
    , 2011. Pushing the Envelope for Polymer Flooding Towards High-Temperature and High-Salinity Reservoirs with Polyacrylamide Based ter-Polymers. Paper SPE 141497 presented at the SPE Middle-East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, in Manama, Bahrain, 25–28 September 2011.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ward, J.S., Martin, F.D.
    , 1981, Prediction of Viscosity of Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide Solutions in the Presence of Calcium and Magnesium, SPE Journal, 21(5), xxx–xxx.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Zaitoun, A., Makakou, P., Blin, N., Al-Maamari, R.S., Al-Hashmi, A.R., Abdel-Goad, M., Al-Sharji, H.H.
    , Shear Stability of EOR Polymers, Paper SPE 141113 presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 11–13 April 2011.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201700333
Loading
/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201700333
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error