Time-lapse seismic data has been widely used for the detailed reservoir characterization, and data assimilation algorithms are commonly used for petroleum reservoir history matching of production data. However, hardly any seismic data has been integrated into the reservoir inverse modeling workflow, due to the large data size, finer gridding, and especially the scarcity in time of the seismic data. Popular ensemble-based reservoir inverse modeling methods such as ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) also face the problems of high computational cost due to the storage of the intermediate variables, restarting the reservoir simulating process and the inconsistency of the full-step and step-wise simulations. The intrinsic sequential data assimilations characteristics of the EnKF set obstacles to assimilate 4D seismic data. The alternative method can be the ensemble smoother (ES), which is an ensemble based method for data assimilation. The ES is based on a Bayesian updating scheme of the reservoir model to match the production history and improve the production forecast. To improve the algorithm convergence, a multiple data assimilation (MDA) method was proposed by .

The algorithm we used is called ensemble smoother with multiple data assimilation (ESMDA), we modified the ESMDA to integrate the geophysical data, and created the new workflow to history match both the production and geophysical data. The available production data is well measurements, including oil production rate, well water cut and bottom-hole pressure, as well as time-lapse geophysical data, including P-wave impedance. In this paper, we first formulated the mathematical descriptions of ESMDA, we then down-scaled the seismic data, and modified the data assimilation algorithms, illustrated the history matching workflow for both production and geophysical data, finally, we showed how it works with a case study on a water flooding operation in a synthetic reservoir. In comparison, we also showed the history matching only on the production data, which yields an inferior results than the one matches both production and seismic data.


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