Seismic data often includes scattered energy of all types including those corresponding to multi scattering. Traditional imaging techniques are focused on the primary reflections, and thus, may fail to image crucial structures, like faults, which sometimes are only illuminated by the higher-order scattering. A process, referred to as generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI), offers an opportunity to image higher order scattering by incorporating an interferometric cross-correlation step of the back propagated wavefield with the recorded data into the standard imaging process. The interferometric step is performed on a large portion of the data, which leads to a considerable increase in the cost of imaging, especially in the time domain. Therefore, we formulate a frequency domain GIMI to replace the cross correlation with a simple multiplication, which makes the implementation more practical. In addition, we apply the energy norm imaging condition to isolate the scattering component or its tomographic term. We show these features on numerical experiments.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Alkhalifah, T., Sun, B., and Wu, Z.
    [2018] Full model wavenumber inversion: Identifying sources of information for the elusive middle model wavenumbers. Geophysics, 83(6), R597–R610.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alkhalifah, T., and Guo, Q.
    [2018] Subsurface wavefields based on the generalized internal multiple imaging. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts, 4337–4341.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Behura, J., Wapenaar, K., and Snieder, R.
    [2012] Newton-Marchenko-Rose Imaging. SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts, 1–6.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Guo, Q., and Alkhalifah, T.
    [2017] Elastic reflection based waveform inversion with a nonlinear approach. Geophysics, 82(6), R309–R321.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Liu, Y., Chang, X., Jin, D., He, R, Sun, H., and Zheng, Y.
    [2011] Reverse time migration of multiples for subsalt imaging. Geophysics, 76(5), WB209–WB216.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Malcolm, A. E., Ursin, B., and De Hoop, M. V.
    [2009] Seismic imaging and illumination with internal multiples. Geophysical Journal International, 176, 847–864.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Rocha, D., Tanushev, N., and Sava, P.
    [2016] Acoustic wavefield imaging using the energy norm. Geophysics, 81(4), S151–S163.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Zuberi, M. A. H, and Alkhalifah, T.
    [2014a] Generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) using feynman-like diagrams. Geophysical Journal International, 197, 1582–1592.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. [2014b] Generalized internal multiple imaging. Geophysics, 79(5), S207–S216.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error