This paper examines the impact of heterogeneity on Low Salinity Water flooding (LSWF) for a realistic field scale models. We examine various scenarios of permeability variations to cover a wide range of heterogeneity possibilities. Since heterogeneity is known to induce fingering and crossflow effects at the fine scale during conventional water flooding. We analyse these effects where the LSWF process is related to a change in wettability, to determine what should be captured, in terms of solute dispersion, in typical coarse scale simulation models.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Al-Ibadi, H., Stephen, K. & Mackay, E.
    , 2018. Improved Numerical Stability and Upscaling of Low Salinity Water Flooding. In SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition. pp. 23–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. , 2019a. Extended Fractional Flow Model of Low Salinity Water Flooding Accounting for Dispersion and Effective Salinity Range Hasan Al-Ibadi; Karl D. Stephen; Eric Mackay J., Heriot Watt University. SPEJ, in press;
    [Google Scholar]
  3. , 2019b. Novel Observations of Salinity Transport in Low-Salinity Waterflooding. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Preprint, pp.22–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Al-Ibadi, H., Stephen, K. and Mackay, E.
    , 2019c. Analytical Solution of Chemical Flooding in Heterogeneous Non-Communicating Layers with a Focus on Low Salinity Water Flooding. SPE-195446-MS. In proceedings of SPE Europec featured at 81st EAGE Annual Conference, London, UK, 3–6 June.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. , 2019d. Analytical and Numerical Solutions of Chemical Flooding in a Layered Reservoir with a Focus on Low Salinity Water Flooding. In the 20th European symposium on improved oil recovery.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Sheng, J.J.
    , 2014. Critical review of low-salinity waterflooding. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 120, pp.216–224.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error