Integrated Geophysical Models

Combining Rock Physics with Seismic, Electromagnetic and Gravity Data

image of Integrated Geophysical Models
  • By Paolo Dell’Aversana
  • Format: EPUB
  • Publication Year: 2014
  • Number of Pages: 244
  • Language: English
  • Ebook ISBN: 9789462820067

The growing interest for electromagnetic and gravity methods, together with the availability of high quality seismic data, justifies the development of efficient methodologies for combining heterogeneous geophysical information into multi-parametric models. This book discusses different approaches for building integrated geophysical models using seismic, electromagnetic and gravity data.
The book will focus mainly on land and offshore geophysical data acquired at the surface. However, also borehole data will be considered as a fundamental support for geophysical integration. Integrated acquisition techniques will be included in the discussion, but the focus will be mainly on integrated model building.
Target audience:
a) Exploration geophysicists and geologists
b) Reservoir geophysicists, petrophysicists, geologists, engineers
c) Exploration and reservoir managers
d) Academics dealing with seismic and/or non-seismic methods
e) Students and researchers in geology and geophysics
Integrated geophysics is one of the most important problems in geosciences. In fact it has received considerable attention in the technical literature since about 1960. However it is difficult to find books dealing with a comprehensive discussion about quantitative integration of the most recent seismic and non-seismic methods applied in the O&G industry. Moreover many techniques discussed in the book here proposed are unedited or only partially discussed in few specific articles.

Table of Contents

Introduction by Prof Fabio Rocca and Prof Giancarlo Bernasconi
Part I Theory

1 Integrated geophysics and rock physics

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Geophysical domains
1.3 Integration criteria and types of relationship
1.3.1 Criteria
1.3.2 Relationships
1.4 Cross properties and cross models
1.4.1 Combined models
1.4.2 Simulated example: models and cross models based on porosity
1.4.3 Simulated example: models and cross models based on porosity and saturation
1.5 Summary and final remarks

2 Benefits and limitations of geophysical methods
2.1 Geophysical methods: an overview of benefits and limitations
2.2 Seismic methods
2.2.1 Introduction
2.2.2 Seismic refraction method
2.2.3 Seismic reflection method
2.2.4 Combined refraction–reflection seismic methods
2.2.5 Borehole seismic methods
2.3 Electromagnetic methods
2.3.1 Introduction
2.3.2 Types of EM method
2.3.3 Magnetotellurics (MT)
2.3.4 Marine controlled-source electromagnetic (MCSEM) methods
2.3.5 Electric (DC) methods
2.3.6 Additional electromagnetic methods
2.4 Gravity and magnetic methods
2.4.1 Gravity methods
2.4.2 Magnetic methods
2.5 Conclusive remarks

3 Integrated geophysical models: strategies and methods
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Objectives of integration
3.2.1 Integration for background characterization (an introduction to the problem)
3.2.2 Integration for reservoir characterization (an introduction to the problem)
3.2.3 Other integration objectives
3.3 General aspects of integration
3.4 Integration approaches
3.4.1 Co-rendered information
3.4.2 Inversion approaches for geophysical data integration
3.5 Simultaneous joint inversion (SJI)
3.5.1 Introduction
3.5.2 General formulation of SJI
3.5.3 Joint inversion addressed to specific problems
3.5.4 Uncertainties and sensitivity analysis in the SJI problem
3.6 Conclusions

4 Limitations of the integration methods: towards a systemic approach
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Joint inversion: is it the panacea?
4.3 Quantitative integration system (QUIS)
4.3.1 QUIS structure
4.3.2 QUIS workflows
4.4 Anisotropy and the added value of integration
4.5 Conclusions

Part II Applications
5 Integrated geophysical models in complex exploration areas
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Difficult exploration on land: thrust belts
5.2.1 Expanding the seismic layout
5.2.2 An integrated geophysical project in a thrust belt
5.2.3 Another case history of integration in the thrust belt
5.2.4 Three-dimensional global offset in thrust belts
5.2.5 Towards an optimized integration workflow
5.3 Difficult exploration in basalt-covered areas
5.3.1 The integrated geophysical approach
5.3.2 The small-scale experiment
5.3.3 The large-scale experiment
5.4 Integration of seismic and CSEM attributes in a complex geological context
5.4.1 Introduction
5.4.2 Symmetry properties of CSEM data
5.4.3 Case history
5.5 Overview of integrated geophysical methods for sub-salt exploration
5.6 Conclusions

6 Integrated geophysical models for discovery appraisal and reservoir characterization
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Case histories
6.2.1 Appraisal of an oil discovery using seismic, CSEM and gravity data
6.2.2 Estimation of oil saturation using CSEM, seismic and well data
6.2.3 An example of simultaneous joint inversion of composite well-log data
6.3 Conclusions

7 Conclusions and final remarks


Appendix A Pore space rock properties and fluid saturation
A.1 Pore space properties
A.2 Pore fluid saturation

Appendix B Definitions and relations between rock properties and geophysical parameters
B.1 Elastic properties
B.1.1 Rock-physics relationships regarding seismic velocities
B.1.2 Theoretical rock-physics models
B.2 Electric properties
B.2.1 Rock-physics relationships regarding electric resistivity
B.2.2 Theoretical rock-physics models
B.2.3 Models for rocks with electrolytic and interface conductivity
B.3 Rock-physics relationships and density
B.3.1 Definitions
B.3.2 Dependence on porosity and saturation
B.3.3 Dependence on mineralogy, rock type, depth and pressure
B.3.4 Oil density
B.4 Magnetic properties

Appendix C Additional rock-physics relations and theoretical examples
C.1 Models for elastic parameters
C.1.1 Another formulation of Gassmann’s model
C.1.2 Eberhart-Philips model
C.1.3 Eshelby’s model
C.1.4 Wood’s model
C.2 Models for electric parameters
C.2.1 Glover’s model
C.2.2 Hermance’s model
C.3 Cross models for seismic and electric parameters
C.3.1 Faust cross model
C.3.2 Koesoemadinata and McMechan’s cross models

Appendix D Basics of elastic wave propagation
Appendix E Basics of electromagnetic wave propagation


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