1887
Volume 69, Issue 8-9
  • E-ISSN: 1365-2478

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The elastic properties of argillaceous sandstones are significantly controlled, however, by the perplexing distribution of dispersed, cemented and matrix (including structural and layered) clay. The corresponding rock physics models are established to investigate the influence of different clay distribution on the elastic properties of sandstone. The rock physics modelling and laboratory experimental results exhibit that the higher the content of the matrix clay, the lower the elastic wave velocity. The dispersed and cemented clay increases the sandstone's velocity by reducing the porosity; the increase of dispersed clay only causes a slight increase in the elastic wave velocity in sandstone. In contrast, a small amount of cemented clay can significantly increase the velocity in sandstone. Based on these understandings, we construct a cross‐plot of P‐wave velocity and clay content as a template to diagnose clay distribution. Based on the rock physics model and empirical knowledge, we divide the template into four zones, namely, matrix, dispersed, cemented and mixed clay distribution zones. Then, we use the published experimental data and numerical modelling data to validate the template. Based on diagnosing the clay distribution, we introduce how to use the diagnostic results of the template to select a suitable rock physics model for argillaceous sandstone in Shengli Oil Field, East China. The selected rock physics model, guided by diagnosing the clay distribution, predicts P‐ and S‐wave velocity very well. The proposed rock physics template for diagnosing clay distribution also has potential application in well‐logging data interpretation, rock physics modelling and reservoir characterization.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1111/1365-2478.13130
2021-10-08
2021-10-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/gpr/69/8-9/gpr13130.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1111/1365-2478.13130&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ali, A., Zubair Hussain, M., Rehman, K., and Toqeer, M. (2016) Effect of shale distribution on hydrocarbon sands integrated with anisotropic rock physics for AVA modelling: a case study. Acta Geophysica, 64(4), 1139–1163.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Andrea, M., Sams, M.S., Worthington, M.H., and King, M.S. (2003) Predicting horizontal velocities from well data. Geophysical Prospecting, 45(4), 593–609.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anstey, N.A., (1991) Velocity in thin section. First Break, 10, 449–457.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Avseth, P., Johansen, T.A., Bakhorji, A., and Mustafa, H.M. (2014) Rock physics modeling guided by depositional and burial history in low to intermediate porosity sandstones. Geophysics, 79(2), 115–121.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Avseth, P., Mukerji, T., and Mavko, G. (2005) Quantitative Seismic Interpretation: Rock Physics Interpretation of Texture, Lithology and Compaction. Cambridge University Press, pp, 48–110.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Backus, G.E. (1962) Long‐wave elastic anisotropy produced by horizontal layering. Journal of Geophysical Research, 67(11), 4427–4440.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Berryman, J.G. (1981) Elastic wave propagation in fluid‐saturated porous media. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 70(6), 1754–1756.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Budiansky, B. (1965) On the elastic moduli of some heterogeneous materials. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 13(4), 223–227.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Castagna, J.P., Batzle, M.L. and Eastwood, R.L. (1985) Relationships between compressional‐wave and shear‐wave velocities in clastic silicate rocks. Geophysics, 50(4), 571–581.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chu, Z. (1987) Acoustic velocity logging interpretation of shaly sandstone——Also on the effect of clay on acoustic time difference. Well Logging Technology, 2, 46–55 (in Chinese).
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cosenza, P., Robinet, J.C., Prêt, D., Huret, E., Fleury, M., and Géraud, Y., et al. (2014) Indirect estimation of the clay content of clay‐rocks using acoustic measurements: new insights from the Montiers‐Sur‐Saulx deep borehole (Meuse, France). Marine & Petroleum Geology, 53, 117–132.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Crampin, S. (1987) Geological and industrial implications of extensive‐dilatancy anisotropy. Nature, 328(6130), 491–496.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dejtrakulwong, P., and Mavko, G. (2016) Fluid substitution for thinly interbedded sand‐shale sequences using the mesh method. Geophysics, 81(6), D599–D609.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dvorkin, J. and Nur, A. (1996) Elasticity of high‐porosity sandstones: theory for two North Sea data sets. Geophysics, 61(5), 1363–1370.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Dvorkin, J., Nur, A. and Yin, H. (1994). Effective properties of cemented granular materials. Mechanics of Materials, 18(4), 351–366.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Ehrenberg, S.N. (1989) Assessing the relative importance of compaction processes and cementation to reduction of porosity in sandstones. AAPG Bulletin, 73(10), 1274–1276.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Ehrenberg, S.N. and Nadeau, P.H. (2005) Sandstone vs. carbonate petroleum reservoirs: a global perspective on porosity‐depth and porosity‐permeability relationships. AAPG Bulletin, 89(4), 435–445.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Eshimokhai, S., Akhirevbulu, O. and Osueni, L. (2011) Evaluation of thin bed using resistivity borehole and NMR imaging techniques. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management, 4(4), 96–102.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Goldberg, I. and Gurevich, B. (2010) A semi‐empirical velocity‐porosity‐clay model for petrophysical interpretation of P‐ and S‐velocities. Geophysical Prospecting, 46(3), 271–285.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Guo, J. and Han, X. (2016) Acoustic velocity modelling for heavy oil sand. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 145, 436–443.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Han, D., Nur, A., and Morgan, D. (1986) Effects of porosity and clay content on velocities in sandstones. Geophysics, 51(11), 2093–2107.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Han, T., Gurevich, B., Pervukhina, M., Clennell, M.B. and Zhang, J. (2016) Linking the pressure dependency of elastic and electrical properties of porous rocks by a dual porosity model. Geophysical Journal International, 205(1), 378–388.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Han, T., Liu, S., Xu, D and Fu, L. (2020) Pressure‐dependent cross‐property relationships between elastic and electrical properties of partially saturated porous sandstones. Geophysics, 85(3), MR107–MR115.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Han, X., Yang, L., Hou, Q., Li, F. and Wang, H. (2013) A new method for making artificial rock of unconsolidated sandstone cemented by dispersed shale. Progress in Geophysics, 28(6), 2944–2949 (in Chinese).
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hashin, Z. and Shtrikman, S. (1962). A variational approach to the theory of the elastic behaviour of polycrystals. Journal of the Mechanics & Physics of Solids, 10(4), 343–352.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Healy, D., Jones, R., and Holdsworth, R. (2006) Three‐dimensional brittle shear fracturing by tensile crack interaction. Nature, 439, 64–67.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kern, H. (1982) Elastic‐wave velocity in crustal and mantle rocks at high pressure and temperature: the role of the high‐low quartz transition and of dehydration reactions. Physics of the Earth & Planetary Interiors, 29(1), 12–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Khalid, P., Broseta, D., and DanV.N. (2014) A modified rock physics model for analysis of seismic signatures of low gas‐saturated rocks. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 7(8), 3281–3295.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Knackstedt, M., Arns, C. and Pinczewski, W.V. (2010) Velocity‐porosity relationships: predictive velocity model for cemented sands composed of multiple mineral phases. Geophysical Prospecting, 53(3), 349–372.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kurniawan, F. (2005) Shaly sand interpretation using CEC‐dependent petrophysical parameters. Ph.D. Thesis, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, LA.
  31. Kuster, G.T. and Toksöz, M.N. (1974) Velocity and attenuation of seismic waves in two‐phase media: part I. Theoretical formulations. Geophysics, 39(5), 587–606.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Main, I.G., Ohmyoung, K., Ngwenya, B.T. and Elphick, S.C. (2000) Fault sealing during deformation‐band growth in porous sandstone. Geology, 28(12), 1131–1134.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Marion, D., Nur, A., Yin, H., and Han, D. (1992) Compressional velocity and porosity in sand‐clay mixtures. Geophysics, 57(4), 554–563.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Mavko, G., Mukerji, T. and Dvorkin, J. (2009) The Rock Physics Handbook: Tools for Seismic Analysis of Porous Media. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Mindlin, R.D. (1949) Compliance of elastic bodies in contact. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 16(3), 259–268.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Minear, J.M. (1982). Clay models and acoustic velocities. SPE‐11031‐MS. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition.
  37. Norris, A.N. (1985) A differential scheme for the effective moduli of composites. Mechanics of Materials, 4(1), 1–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Norris, A.N., Sheng, P. and Callegari, A.J. (1985) Effective‐medium theories for two‐phase dielectric media. Journal of Applied Physics, 57(6), 1990–1996.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Nur, A. and Byerlee, J. D. (1971) An exact effective stress law for elastic deformation of rock with fluids. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 76(26), 6414–6419.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Nur, A., Mavko, G., Dvorkin, J. and Galmudi, D. (1995) Critical porosity; a key to relating physical properties to porosity in rocks. The Leading Edge, 14(3), 878–881.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Sams, M.S. and Andrea, M. (2001) The effect of clay distribution on the elastic properties of sandstones. Geophysical Prospecting, 49(1), 128–150.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Saxena, N., Hofmann, R., Dolan, S., Sarker, R., Bao, C. and Gelinksy, S. (2019) Rock physics model for seismic velocity & fluid substitution in sub‐resolution interbedded sand‐shale sequences. Geophysical Prospecting, 67(4), 843–871.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Ten Cate, J.A. and Shankland, T.J. (2013). Slow dynamics in the nonlinear elastic response of Berea sandstone. Geophysical Research Letters, 23(21), 3019–3022.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Thomas, E.C. and Stieber, S.J. (1975) The distribution of shale in sandstones and its effect on porosity. PWLA‐1975‐T, SPWLA 16th Annual Logging Symposium, New Orleans, LA, June 1975.
  45. Timur, A., (1968) Velocity of compressional waves in porous media at permafrost temperatures. Geophysics, 33(4), 384–595.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Tyagi, AK., Guha, R., Voleti, D. and Saxena, K. (2009) Challenges in the reservoir characterization of a laminated sand clay sequence. Second SPWLA‐India Symposium.
  47. Wang, Z. and Nur, A. (1988) Effect of temperature on wave velocities in sands and sandstones with heavy hydrocarbons. SPE Reservoir Engineering, 3(1), 158–164.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Wu, T.T. (1966) The effect of inclusion shape on the elastic moduli of a two‐phase material. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 2(1), 1–8.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Yang, S.Q. and Hu, B. (2020) Creep and permeability evolution behavior of red sandstone containing a single fissure under a confining pressure of 30 MPa. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1900.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Zhao, L., Wang, Y., Liu, X., Zhang, J., Liu, Y., Qin, X., and Geng, J. (2020) Depositional impact on the elastic characteristics of the organic clay reservoir and its seismic application: a case study of the Longmaxi‐Wufeng clay in the Fuling gas field, Sichuan Basin Depositional elastic effects. Geophysics, 85(2), B23–B33.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Zimmerman, R.W., Somerton, W.H. and King, M.S. (1986) Compressibility of porous rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research Solid Earth, 91(B12), 12765–12777.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1111/1365-2478.13130
Loading
/content/journals/10.1111/1365-2478.13130
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Logging and Rock physics
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error