1887
Volume 32 Number 2
  • E-ISSN: 1365-2478

Abstract

A

In this study we derive expressions for particle displacement or particle velocity anywhere inside a stratified earth and at its surface due to horizontal torque source located in the top layer. Equivalently, invoking Green's function reciprocity theorem, the solution applies also to the case of a surface or subsurface source when the resulting displacement or velocity is measured within the top layer.

In order to evaluate the closed‐form analytical solution economically and accurately it is advisable to introduce inelastic attenuation. Causal inelastic attenuation also lends the necessary realism to the computed seismic trace. To provide proof that the analytical solution is indeed correct and applicable to the multilayer case, a thick uniform overburden was assumed to consist of many thin layers. The correctness of the computed particle velocity response can be very simply verified by inspection. The computed response can also serve as a check on other less accurate methods of producing synthetic seismograms, such as the techniques of finite differences, finite elements, and various sophisticated ray‐tracing techniques.

It is not difficult to construct horizontal surface torque source. It appears that such source is well suited for seismic exploration in areas with a high‐velocity surface layer. A realistic source function is analyzed in detail and normalized displacement response evaluated at different incidence angles in the near and the far fields.

In an effort to distinguish the features of an SH torque seismogram from a pressure seismogram two models with identical layerings and layer parameters have been set up. As expected the torque seismogram is very different from the compressional seismogram. One desirable feature of a torque seismogram is the fast decay of multiples.

Exact synthetic seismograms have many uses; some of them, such as the study of complex interference phenomena, phase change at wide angle reflection, channeling effects, dispersion (geometrical and material), absolute gain, and inelastic attenuation, can be carried out accurately and effortlessly. They can also be used to improve basic processing techniques such as deconvolution and velocity analysis.

The numerical evaluation of the analytical solution of the wave equation as described in this paper has a long history. Most of the work leading to this paper was carried out by one of us (M. J. K.) in the years 1957 to 1968 at the Geophysical Research Corporation. However, the full testing of the various computer codes was carried out only very recently at the Phillips Petroleum Company.

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2006-04-27
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References

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