1887
Volume 61 Number 1
  • E-ISSN: 1365-2478

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Induced polarization (IP) is a geophysical method that is potentially sensitive to the presence of cracks in porous rocks and therefore to damage. We performed time‐domain and frequency domain IP measurements at the Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL, Aveyron, France) in areas where different types of cracks are observed. These cracks correspond to both tectonic fractures and new cracks associated with stress release and desiccation resulting from the excavation of a gallery. These measurements were performed both in eastern and northern galleries of the test site. The eastern gallery was excavated in 1996 while the northern gallery was excavated recently in 2008. This gives us the opportunity to study the electrical characteristics of the excavation damaged zone surrounding the galleries with respect to the age of the excavation. Longitudinal profiles were performed along the floor of the galleries with 48 Cu/CuSO electrodes separated by a distance of 20 cm. Chargeability and resistivity were inverted using a Gauss‐Newton iterative approach assuming an isotropic heterogeneous clay‐rock material. The resulting IP tomograms show a correlation between high values of chargeability and the presence of calcite‐filled tectonic fractures. X‐ray analysis indicates that the presence of pyrite in these fractures is a potential source of the observed IP signals. The cracks associated with the mechanical damage of the formation exhibit low values of chargeability, on the same order of magnitude than the chargeability of the clay‐rock matrix and are therefore hardly observable. A smaller IP response associated with the presence of these cracks is observed in the older gallery and this observation is qualitatively related to the desaturation process associated with these cracks. In a specific area of one of the galleries, the presence of calcareous nodules is observed to be an important source of anomalous chargeability. This signature seems to be associated with the presence of pyrite.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1111/j.1365-2478.2012.01054.x
2012-03-22
2020-04-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. BinleyA., SlaterL.D., FukesM. and CassianiG.2005. Relationship between spectral induced polarization and hydraulic properties of saturated and unsaturated sandstones. Water Resource Research 41, W12417. doi:10.1029/2005WR004202
    [Google Scholar]
  2. BlümlingP., BernierF., LebonP. and Derek MartinC.2007. Excavation damaged zone in clay formations time‐dependent behaviour and influence on performance assessment. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 32, 588–599.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. BoissonJ.Y., CabreraJ. and De WindtL.1996. Investigating faults and fractures in argillaceous Toarcian formation at the IPSN Tournemire research site. Joint OECD/NEA‐EC Workshop on Fluid Flow through Faults and Fractures in Argillaceous Formation, Bern , Switzerland , Expanded Abstracts, 207–222.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. BoissonJ.Y., CabreraJ. and De WindtL.1997. Caractérisation d’une formation argileuse‐Caractérisation des propriétés de transferts au laboratoire des argilites et marnes toarciennes de Tournemire, Aveyron, France. CCE report no. 5, ref. SERGD 97/04.
  5. BoninB.1998. Deep geological disposal in argillaceous formations: Studies at the Tournemire test site. Journal Contamination Hydrology 35, 315–330.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. BörnerF.D., SchopperJ.R. and WellerA.1996. Evaluation of transport and storage properties in the soil and groundwater zone from induced polarization measurements. Geophysical Prospecting 44, 583–602.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. BossartP., MeierP., MoeriA., TrickT. and MayorJ.2002. Geological and hydraulic characterisation of the excavation disturbed zone in the Opalinus Clay of the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Engineering Geology 66, 19–38.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. CabreraJ., BeaucaireC., BrunoG., De WindtL., GentyA., RamambasoaN. et al . 2001. Projet Tournemire – Synthèse des programmes de recherche 1995–1999. Report #IPSN DPRE/SERGD 01–19, Paris , France .
  9. CampbellD.L., HortonR.J. and BeanlangS.2000. Geoelectrical laboratory measurements of materials from the May Say mine dump, Southwestern Colorado. Open‐File Report 00–382, USGS, 27 p.
  10. ContrucciI., CabreraJ., KleinE. and Ben‐SlimaneK.2007. EDZ investigations by ultrasonic borehole logging in drifts of different ages excavated in argillaceous formations of the Tournemire experimental station. Annual International Meeting, ANDRA, Clays in Natural and Engineered Barriers for Radioactive Waste Confinement, 17–18 September, Lille , France , Expanded Abstracts.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. CosenzaP., GhorbaniA., FlorschN. and RevilA.2007. Effects of drying on the low frequency electrical properties of Tournemire argillites. Pure and Applied Geophysics 164, 2043–2066. doi:10.1007/s00024‐007‐0253‐0
    [Google Scholar]
  12. CosenzaP., GhorbaniA., RevilA., ZamoraM., SchmutzM., JougnotD. and FlorschN.2008. A physical model of the low‐frequency electrical polarization of clay‐rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, B08204. doi:10.1029/2007JB005539
    [Google Scholar]
  13. DahlinT., LerouxV. and NissenJ.2002. Measuring techniques in induced polarisation imaging. Journal of Applied Geophysics 50, 279–298.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. De Groot HedlinC.1990. Occam's inversion to generate smooth, two dimensional models from magnetotelluric data. Geophysics 55, 1613–1624
    [Google Scholar]
  15. De WindtL., CabreraJ. and BoissonJ.Y.1999. Radioactive waste containment in indurated shales: Comparison between the chemical containment properties of matrix and fractures. In: Chemical Containment of Waste in the Geosphere (eds R.Metclafe and C.A.Rochelle ), 167–181.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. GélisC., RevilA., CushingM.E., JougnotD., LemeilleF., CabreraJ. et al . 2010. Potential of electrical resistivity tomography to detect fault zones in limestone and argillaceous formations in the experimental site of Tournemire, France. Pure and Applied Geophysics 167, 1405–1418. doi:10.1007/s00024‐010‐0097‐x
    [Google Scholar]
  17. GhorbaniA., CamerlynckC., FlorschN., CosenzaP., TabbaghA. and RevilA.2007. Bayesian inference of the Cole‐Cole parameters from time and frequency‐domain induced polarization. Geophysical Prospecting 55, 589–605. doi:10.1111/j.1365‐2478.2007.00627.x
    [Google Scholar]
  18. GhorbaniA., CosenzaP., RevilA., ZamoraM., SchmutzM., FlorschN. and JougnotD.2009. Non‐invasive monitoring of water content and textural changes in clay‐rocks using spectral induced polarization: A laboratory investigation. Applied Clay Science 43, 493–502. doi:10.1016/j.clay.2008.12.007
    [Google Scholar]
  19. JougnotD., GhorbaniA., RevilA., LeroyP. and CosenzaP.2010. Spectral induced polarization of partially saturated clay‐rocks: A mechanistic approach. Geophysical Journal International 180, 210–224. doi:10.1111/j.1365‐246X.2009.04426.x
    [Google Scholar]
  20. KaraoulisM., RevilA., WerkemaD.D., MinsleyB., WoodruffW.F. and KemnaA.2011. Time‐lapse 3D inversion of complex conductivity data using an active time constrained (ATC) approach. Geophysical Journal International . doi:10.1111/j.1365‐246X.2011.05156.x
    [Google Scholar]
  21. KemnaA.2000. Tomographic inversion of complex resistivity: Theory and application . PhD thesis, Bochum University.
  22. KemnaA., BinleyA. and SlaterL.2004. Cross‐borehole IP imaging for engineering and environmental applications. Geophysics 69, 97–105.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. KenkelJ., HördtA. and KemnaA.2011. 2D modelling of induced polarisation data with anisotropic resistivities. Near Surface Geophysics (submitted).
    [Google Scholar]
  24. KnightR.J. and EndresA.1990. A new concept in modelling the dielectric response of sandstones. Geophysics 55, 586–594.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. KruschwitzS. and YaramanciU.2004. Detection and characterization of the disturbed rock zone in claystone with complex resistivity method. Journal of Applied Geophysics 57, 63–79. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2004.09.003
    [Google Scholar]
  26. LeroyP. and RevilA.2009. Spectral induced polarization of clays and clay‐rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, B10202. doi:10.1029/2008JB006114
    [Google Scholar]
  27. LeroyP., RevilA., KemnaA., CosenzaP. and GhorbaniA.2008. Spectral induced polarization of water‐saturated packs of glass beads. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 321, 103–117.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. LesmesD.P. and FriedmanS.P.2005. Relationships between the electrical and hydrogeological properties of rocks and soils. In: Hydrogeophysics (eds Y.Rubin and S.S.Hubbard ), pp. 87–128. Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. LesmesD.P. and FryeK.M.2001. The influence of pore fluid chemistry on the complex conductivity and induced polarization responses of Berea sandstone. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 4079–4090
    [Google Scholar]
  30. LokeM.H. and BarkerR.D.1996. Rapid least‐squares inversion of apparent resistivity pseudo sections using a quasi‐Newton method. Geophysical Prospecting 44, 131–152.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. MarshallD.J. and MaddenT.R.1959. Induced polarization: A study of its causes. Geophysics 24, 790–816. doi:10.1190/1.1438659
    [Google Scholar]
  32. MathieuR., PagelM., ClauerN., De WindtL., CabreraJ. and BoissonJ.Y.2000. Paleofluid circulations records in shales: A mineralogical and geochemical study of calcite veins from the experimental Tournemire tunnel site. European Journal of Mineralogy 12, 377–390.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. MatrayJ.M., SavoyeS. and CabreraJ.2007. Desaturation and structure relationships around drifts excavated in the well‐compacted Tournemire's argillite. Engineering Geology 90, 1–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. NelsonP.H. and Van VoorhisG.D.1973. Letter to the editor regarding the paper “Complex resistivity spectra of porphyry copper mineralization”. Geophysics 38, 984.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. NelsonP.H. and Van VoorhisG.D.1983. Estimation of sulphide content from induced polarisation data. Geophysics 48, 62–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. NoverG., HeikampS. and FreundD.2000. Electrical impedance spectroscopy used as a tool for the detection of fractures in rock samples exposed to either hydrostatic or triaxial pressure conditions. Natural Hazards 21, 317–330.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. OlhoeftG.R.1984. Clay‐organic interactions measured with complex resistivity. 54th SEG meeting, Atlanta , Georgia , USA , Expanded Abstracts, 356–358.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. OlhoeftG.R.1985. Low‐frequency electrical properties. Geophysics 50, 2492–2503.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. OlhoeftG.R.1992. Geophysical detection of hydrocarbon and organic chemical contamination. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems , Expanded Abstracts, 587–594.
  40. PeltonW.H., SillW.R. and SmithB.D.1983. Interpretation of complex resistivity and dielectric data, part I. Geophysical Transactions 29, 297–330.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. PeltonW.H., WardS.H., HallofP.G., SillW.R. and NelsonP.H.1978. Mineral discrimination and removal of inductive coupling with multifrequency IP. Geophysics 43, 588–609.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. PeyaudJ.B., PagelM., CabreraJ. and PitschH.2006. Mineralogical, chemical and isotopic perturbations induced in shale by fluid circulation in a fault at the Tournemire experimental site (Aveyron, France). Journal of Geochemical Exploration 90, 9–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. RejebA. and CabreraJ.2006. Time‐dependent evolution of the excavation damaged zone in the argillaceous Tournemire site. The GeoProc International Conference on Coupled T‐H‐M‐C Processes in Geosystems: Fundamentals, Modelling, Experiments and Applications (invited lecture), 22–25 May, Nanjing , China .
  44. RevilA. and FlorschN.2010. Determination of permeability from spectral induced polarization data in granular media. Geophysical Journal International 181, 1480–1498. doi:10.1111/j.1365‐246X.2010.04573.x
    [Google Scholar]
  45. SavoyeS., MichelotJ.L., WittebroodtC. and AltinierM.V.2006. Contribution of the diffusive exchange method to the characterization of pore‐water in consolidated argillaceous rocks. Journal of Contaminant Hydrolology 86, 87–104.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. SavoyeS., De WindtL., BeaucaireC., BrunoG. and GuitardN.2001. Are artificial tracers conservative in argillaceous media? The Tournemire claystone case. Water Rock Interaction Proceedings 10, 1383–1386.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. SchmutzM., GhorbaniA., VaudeletP. and RevilA.2011. Spectral IP detects cracks and distinguishes between open and clay‐filled fractures. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics 16, 85–91.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. SchmutzM., RevilA., VaudeletP., BatzleM., Femenía ViñaoP. and WerkemaD.D.2010. Influence of oil saturation upon spectral induced polarization of oil bearing sands. Geophysical Journal International 183, 211–224. doi:10.1111/j.1365‐246X.2010.04751.x
    [Google Scholar]
  49. SchwartzL.M., SenP.N. and JohnsonD.L.1989. Influence of rough surfaces on electrolytic conduction. Physics Review B 40, 2450–2458.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. SeigelH., NabighianM., ParasnisD.S. and VozoffK.2007. The early history of the induced polarization method. The Leading Edge 3, 312–321.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. SenP.N., ChewW.C. and WilkinsonD.1984. Dielectric enhancement due to geometrical and electrochemical effects. In: Physics and Chemistry of Porous Media (eds D.L.Johnson and P.N.Sen ), pp. 52–65. American Institute of Physics.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. SlaterL. and LesmesD.P.2002. IP Interpretation in environmental investigations. Geophysics 67, 77–88.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. SturrockJ.T., LesmesD. and MorganF.D.1999. Permeability estimation using spectral induced polarization measurements. Proceedings on the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems , Expanded Abstracts, 409–415.
  54. TikhonovA.N. and ArseninV.Y.1977. Solutions of Ill‐posed Problems . W.H. Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. TsangC., BernierF. and DaviesC.2005. Geohydromechanical processes in the excavation damaged zone in crystalline rock, rock salt, and indurated and plastic clays in the context of radioactive waste disposal. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 42, 109–125.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Van VoorhisG.D., NelsonP.H. and DrakeT.L.1973. Complex resistivity spectra of porphyry copper mineralization. Geophysics 38, 49–60.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. VanhalaH., SoininenH. and KukkonenI.1992. Detecting organic chemical contaminants by spectral‐induced polarization method in glacial till environment. Geophysics 57, 1014–1017.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. VaudeletP., RevilA., SchmutzM., FranceschiM. and BégassatP.2011a. Induced polarization signatures of cations exhibiting differential sorption behaviors in saturated sands. Water Resource Research 47, W02526. doi:10.1029/2010WR009310
    [Google Scholar]
  59. VaudeletP., RevilA., SchmutzM., FranceschiM. and BégassatP.2011b. Changes in induced polarization associated with the sorption of sodium, lead, and zinc on silica sands. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science , 360, 739–752, 2011.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. VauhkonenM., VadászD., KarjalainenP., SomersaloE. and KaipioJ.1998. Tikhonov regularization and prior information in electrical impedance tomography. IEEE Transactions Medical Imaging 17, 285–293.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. VinegarH.J. and WaxmanM.H.1984. Induced polarization of shaly sands. Geophysics 49, 1267–1287.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. WellerA. and BörnerF.1996. Measurements of spectral induced polarization for environmental purposes. Environmental Geology 27, 329–334.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. WellerA., SeichterM. and KampkeA.1996. Induced‐polarization modelling using complex electrical conductivities. Geophysical Journal International 127, 387–398.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. WongJ.1979. An electrochemical model of the induced‐polarization phenomenon in disseminated sulphide ores. Geophysics , 44, 1245–1265.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1111/j.1365-2478.2012.01054.x
Loading
/content/journals/10.1111/j.1365-2478.2012.01054.x
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Desiccation and Induced polarization
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error