1887
Volume 20, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 1569-4445
  • E-ISSN: 1873-0604

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Researchers around the world have carried out numerous studies on the electrical response of oil‐contaminated silica sands. However, few studies consider the oil contamination in carbonate sands that exhibit quite different characteristics to silica sands. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of grain size (0.5–1.0, 1–3 and 3–5 mm), solution salinity (100, 10 and 1 Ω·m) and pH (4.58, 6.5 and 9.25) on the resistivity and saturation exponent of oil‐bearing carbonate sands. Experimental columns were packed with crushed limestone grains, solution and oil. Electrical resistivity measurements were subsequently performed on the packed columns. Grain size exhibits a complex effect on the electrical response of partially saturated limestone grains. Resistivity decreases slightly with increasing grain size when water saturation is greater than 0.4, while it shows an inconsistent trend when water saturation is lower than 0.4. The resulting saturation exponent decreases slightly when grain size increases from 0.5–1 mm to 1–3 mm, while it shows a positive change in values for grain size of 3–5 mm. Changes in solution salinity significantly influence the resistivity and saturation exponent of limestone grains, with higher solution salinity resulting in lower resistivity and higher saturation exponent. However, with solution pH increasing from 4.58 to 9.25, it shows very limited effect on the resistivity and saturation exponent of limestone grains. This can be attributed to the strong buffering ability of limestone. Effects of grain size, solution salinity and pH on the resistivity and saturation exponent of oil‐bearing carbonate sands were investigated. Resistivity is found to show a decreasing trend with increasing grain size from 0.5–1 mm to 3–5 mm above a certain saturation (e.g. > 0.4), while it shows a rapid increase below a certain saturation (e.g., 0.4) for a larger grain size of 3–5 mm. Resistivity decreases and the saturation exponent increases with the increase of solution salinity for oil‐bearing carbonate sands. Resistivity and saturation exponent do not vary significantly with solution pH ranging from 4.58 to 9.25 for oil‐bearing carbonate sands.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1002/nsg.12201
2022-05-20
2022-06-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aal, G.Z.A., Slater, L.D. and Atekwana, E.A. (2006) Induced‐polarization measurements on unconsolidated sediments from a site of active hydrocarbon biodegradation. Geophysics, 71(2), H13–H24, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.2187760.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Abdel Aal, G.Z. and Atekwana, E.A. (2014) Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of biodegraded oil in porous media. Geophysical Journal International, 196(2), 804–817, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggt416.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aranda, N., Elis, V.R., Prado, R.L., Miguel, M.G., Alves de Godoy Leme, M., Conicelli, B. and Guzmán, O. (2021) Electrical resistivity methods to characterize the moisture content in Brazilian sanitary landfill. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 193(5), 277, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661‐021‐09050‐w.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Archie, G.E. (1942) The electrical resistivity log as an aid in determining some reservoir characteristics. Transactions of the AIME, 146(01), 54–62, https://doi.org/10.2118/942054‐G.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Argaud, M., Giouse, H., Straley, C., Tomanic, J. and Winkler, K. (1989) Salinity and saturation effects on shaly sandstone conductivity. Paper presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. BayatE., A, J., R, D., NM. and Samad, A.A. (2015) TiO2 nanoparticle transport and retention through saturated limestone porous media under various ionic strength conditions. Chemosphere, 134, 7–15, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.03.052.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Binley, A., Hubbard, S.S., Huisman, J.A., Revil, A., Robinson, D.A., Singha, K. and Slater, L.D. (2015) The emergence of hydrogeophysics for improved understanding of subsurface processes over multiple scales. Water Resources Research, 51(6), 3837–3866, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015WR017016.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Binley, A. and Slater, L. (2020) Resistivity and Induced Polarization Theory and Applications to the Near‐Surface Earth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Breen, S.J., Carrigan, C.R., LaBrecque, D.J. and Detwiler, R.L. (2012) Bench‐scale experiments to evaluate electrical resistivity tomography as a monitoring tool for geologic CO2 sequestration. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 9, 484–494, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.04.009.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chambers, J.E., Loke, M.H., Ogilvy, R.D. and Meldrum, P.I. (2004) Noninvasive monitoring of DNAPL migration through a saturated porous medium using electrical impedance tomography. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 68(1–2), 1–22, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169‐7722(03)00142‐6.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cheng, S.‐Y. and Hsu, K.‐C. (2021) Bayesian integration using resistivity and lithology for improving estimation of hydraulic conductivity. Water Resources Research, 57(3), e2020WR027346. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020WR027346.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cherubini, A., Garcia, B., Cerepi, A. and Revil, A. (2019) Influence of CO2 on the electrical conductivity and streaming potential of carbonate rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 124(10), 10056–10073, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JB017057.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Deng, Y., Shi, X., Revil, A., Wu, J. and Ghorbani, A. (2018) Complex conductivity of oil‐contaminated clayey soils. Journal of Hydrology, 561, 930–942, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.04.055.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Deng, Y., Shi, X., Xu, H., Sun, Y., Wu, J. and Revil, A. (2017) Quantitative assessment of electrical resistivity tomography for monitoring DNAPLs migration – comparison with high‐resolution light transmission visualization in laboratory sandbox. Journal of Hydrology, 544, 254–266, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.11.036.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Dong, S., Sun, Y., Gao, B., Shi, X., Xu, H., Wu, J. and Wu, J. (2017) Retention and transport of graphene oxide in water‐saturated limestone media. Chemosphere, 180, 506–512, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.04.052.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Flores Orozco, A., Ciampi, P., Katona, T., Censini, M., Papini, M.P., Deidda, G.P. and Cassiani, G. (2021) Delineation of hydrocarbon contaminants with multi‐frequency complex conductivity imaging. Science of the Total Environment, 768, 144997, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.144997.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Freas, R.C., Hayden, J.S. and Pryor, C.A., Jr. (2006) Limestone and dolomite. In Kogel, J.E.,Trivedi, N.C.,Barker, J.M. & Krukowski,S.T. (Eds.) Industrial Minerals and Rocks: Commodities, Markets and Uses (7th ed.). Littleton: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, pp. 581–597.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gerhard, J.I. and Kueper, B.H. (2003) Capillary pressure characteristics necessary for simulating DNAPL infiltration, redistribution, and immobilization in saturated porous media. Water Resources Research, 39(8), 1212, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002WR001270.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Glover, P.W. (2017) A new theoretical interpretation of Archie's saturation exponent. Solid Earth, 8(4), 805–816, https://doi.org/10.5194/se‐8‐805‐2017.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Golsanami, N., Bakhshi, E., Yan, W., Dong, H., Barzgar, E., Zhang, G. and Mahbaz, S. (2020) Relationships between the geomechanical parameters and Archie's coefficients of fractured carbonate reservoirs: a new insight. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 1–25, https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2020.1849463.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Han, M., Fleury, M. and Levitz, P. (2007) Effect of the pore structure on resistivity index curves. Paper presented at International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Calgary, Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Han, Y., Zhou, C., Yu, J., Li, C., Hu, F., Xu, H. and Yuan, C. (2019) Experimental investigation on the effect of wettability on rock‐electricity response in sandstone reservoirs. Fuel, 239, 1246–1257, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2018.11.072.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Helene, L.P.I., Moreira, C.A. and Bovi, R.C. (2020) Identification of leachate infiltration and its flow pathway in landfill by means of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192(4), 249, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661‐020‐8206‐5.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Holmes, A. (1978) Principles of Physical Geology. London: Nelson, p. 730.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hördt, A., Bairlein, K., Bielefeld, A., Bücker, M., Kuhn, E., Nordsiek, S. and Stebner, H. (2016) The dependence of induced polarization on fluid salinity and pH, studied with an extended model of membrane polarization. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 135, 408–417, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2016.02.007.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kamon, M., Endo, K., Kawabata, J., Inui, T. and Katsumi, T. (2004) Two‐dimensional DNAPL migration affected by groundwater flow in unconfined aquifer. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 110(1), 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2004.02.033.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lesmes, D.P. and Frye, K.M. (2001) Influence of pore fluid chemistry on the complex conductivity and induced polarization responses of Berea sandstone. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 106(B3), 4079–4090, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JB900392.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lesparre, N., Robert, T., Nguyen, F., Boyle, A. and Hermans, T. (2019) 4D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) for aquifer thermal energy storage monitoring. Geothermics, 77, 368–382, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2018.10.011.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Li, X., Xu, H., Gao, B., Sun, Y., Shi, X. and Wu, J. (2019) Transport of a PAH‐degrading bacterium in saturated limestone media under various physicochemical conditions: common and unexpected retention and remobilization behaviors. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 380, 120858, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.120858.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Liu, X., Li, S. and Sun, L. (2020) The study of dynamic properties of carbonate sand through a laboratory database. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 79(7), 3843–3855, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064‐020‐01785‐z.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Maineult, A., Jougnot, D. and Revil, A. (2018) Variations of petrophysical properties and spectral induced polarization in response to drainage and imbibition: a study on a correlated random tube network. Geophysical Journal International, 212(2), 1398–1411, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggx474.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Mondal, N.C., Rao, A.V. and Singh, V.P. (2010) Efficacy of electrical resistivity and induced polarization methods for revealing fluoride contaminated groundwater in granite terrain. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 168(1), 103–114, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661‐009‐1094‐3.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Nasralla, R.A., Bataweel, M.A. and Nasr‐El‐Din, H.A. (2013) Investigation of wettability alteration and oil‐recovery improvement by low‐salinity water in sandstone rock. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 52(2), 144–154, https://doi.org/10.2118/146322‐PA.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Oostrom, M., Hofstee, C., Walker, R.C. and Dane, J.H. (1999) Movement and remediation of trichloroethylene in a saturated heterogeneous porous medium: 1. Spill behavior and initial dissolution. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 37(1), 159–178, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169‐7722(98)00153‐3.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Orlando, L. and Renzi, B. (2015) Electrical permittivity and resistivity time lapses of multiphase DNAPLs in a lab test. Water Resources Research, 51(1), 377–389, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014WR015291.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Piggott, S.D., Redman, J.D. and Endres, A.L. (1998) Hysteresis in the electrical conductivity‐saturation relationship of a sand. Paper presented at Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems, Environment and Engineering Geophysical Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Revil, A., Coperey, A., Shao, Z., Florsch, N., Fabricius, I.L., Deng, Y. et al. (2017) Complex conductivity of soils. Water Resources Research, 53(8), 7121–7147, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR020655.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Revil, A., Karaoulis, M., Johnson, T. and Kemna, A. (2012) Review: some low‐frequency electrical methods for subsurface characterization and monitoring in hydrogeology. Hydrogeology Journal, 20(4), 617–658, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040‐011‐0819‐x.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Revil, A., Schmutz, M. and Batzle, M.L. (2011) Influence of oil wettability upon spectral induced polarization of oil‐bearing sands. Geophysics, 76(5), A31–A36, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2011‐0006.1.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Schmutz, M., Blondel, A. and Revil, A. (2012) Saturation dependence of the quadrature conductivity of oil‐bearing sands. Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L03402, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL050474.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Schmutz, M., Revil, A., Vaudelet, P., Batzle, M., Viñao, P.F. and Werkema, D.D. (2010) Influence of oil saturation upon spectral induced polarization of oil‐bearing sands. Geophysical Journal International, 183(1), 211–224, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365‐246X.2010.04751.x.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Schwartz, N. and Furman, A. (2012) Spectral induced polarization signature of soil contaminated by organic pollutant: experiment and modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 117, B10203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JB009543.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Schwartz, N., Shalem, T. and Furman, A. (2014) The effect of organic acid on the spectral‐induced polarization response of soil. Geophysical Journal International, 197(1), 269–276, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggt529.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Shakeri, A., Ziaie_Moayed, R. and Nozari, M.A. (2021) Passive remediation with colloidal silica effect on shear strength properties of oil‐contaminated Bushehr carbonate sand. Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, 53(1), 367–382, https://doi.org/10.22060/ceej.2018.13268.5363.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Shao, S., Guo, X., Gao, C. and Liu, H. (2021) Quantitative relationship between the resistivity distribution of the by‐product plume and the hydrocarbon degradation in an aged hydrocarbon contaminated site. Journal of Hydrology, 596, 126122, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2021.126122.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Shefer, I., Schwartz, N. and Furman, A. (2013) The effect of free‐phase NAPL on the spectral induced polarization signature of variably saturated soil. Water Resources Research, 49(10), 6229–6237, https://doi.org/10.1002/wrcr.20502.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Slater, L.D. and Glaser, D.R. (2003) Controls on induced polarization in sandy unconsolidated sediments and application to aquifer characterization. Geophysics, 68(5), 1547–1558, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1620628.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Sondenâ, E., Bratteli, F., Norman, H. and Killtveit, K. (1990) The effect of reservoir conditions on saturation exponent and capillary pressure curve for water‐wet samples. In Worthington, P.F. (Ed) Advances in Core Evaluation I. : Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Suman, R.J. and Knight, R.J. (1997) Effects of pore structure and wettability on the electrical resistivity of partially saturated rocks—a network study. Geophysics, 62(4), 1151–1162, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1444216.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Sweeney, S.A. and Jennings, H.Y. (1960) Effect of wettability on the electrical resistivity of carbonate rock from a petroleum reservoir. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 64(5), 551–553, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100834a009.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Trento, L.M., Tsourlos, P. and Gerhard, J.I. (2021) Time‐lapse electrical resistivity tomography mapping of DNAPL remediation at a STAR field site. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 184, 104244, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2020.104244.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Ustra, A., Slater, L., Ntarlagiannis, D. and Elis, V. (2012) Spectral induced polarization (SIP) signatures of clayey soils containing toluene. Near Surface Geophysics, 10(6), 503–515, https://doi.org/10.3997/1873‐0604. 2012015.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Verdet, C., Sirieix, C., Marache, A., Riss, J. and Portais, J.‐C. (2020) Detection of undercover karst features by geophysics (ERT) Lascaux cave hill. Geomorphology, 360, 107177, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2020.107177.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Vinegar, H.J. and Waxman, M.H. (1984) Induced polarization of shaly sands. Geophysics, 49(8), 1267–1287, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1441755.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Wu, Y. and Peruzzo, L. (2020) Effects of salinity and pH on the spectral induced polarization signals of graphite particles. Geophysical Journal International, 221(3), 1532–1541, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggaa087.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Zhang, Y., Zhang, S., Wang, R., Cai, J., Zhang, Y., Li, H., Huang, S., & Jiang, Y. (2016) Impacts of fertilization practices on pH and the pH buffering capacity of calcareous soil. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 62(5‐6), 432–439, https://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.2016.1226685.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Zhou, X.‐Z., Chen, Y.‐M., Li, W.‐W. and Liu, H.‐L. (2019) Monotonic and cyclic behaviors of loose anisotropically consolidated calcareous sand in torsional shear tests. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 37(4), 438–451, https://doi.org/10.1080/1064119X.2018.1449274.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Zhou, X.‐Z., Chen, Y.‐M., Liu, H.‐L. and Zhang, X.‐L. (2020) Experimental study on the cyclic behavior of loose calcareous sand under linear stress paths. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 38(3), 277–290, https://doi.org/10.1080/1064119X.2019.1567631.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Zhu, C.Q., Wang, X.Z., Wang, R., Chen, H.Y. and Meng, Q.S. (2014) Experimental microscopic study of inner pores of calcareous sand. Materials Research Innovations, 18(Sup 2), 207–214, https://doi.org/10.1179/1432891714Z.000000000408.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1002/nsg.12201
Loading
/content/journals/10.1002/nsg.12201
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error