1887
Volume 30, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 1354-0793
  • E-ISSN:
PDF

Abstract

Pervasive igneous intrusive complexes have been identified in many sedimentary basins which are prospective for petroleum exploration and production. Seismic reflection and well data from these basins has characterized many of these igneous intrusions as forming networks of interconnected sills and dykes, and typically cross-cutting sedimentary host rocks. Intrusions have also been identified in close proximity to many oil & gas fields and exploration targets (e.g. Laggan-Tormore fields, Faroe Shetland Basin). It is therefore important to understand how igneous intrusions interact with sedimentary host rocks, specifically reservoir and source rock intervals, to determine the geological risk for petroleum exploration and production. The risks for petroleum exploration include low porosity and permeability within reservoirs, and overmaturity of source rocks, which are intruded. Additionally, reservoirs may be compartmentalized by low permeability igneous intrusions, inhibiting lateral and vertical migration of fluids. Based on a range of field studies and subsurface data, we demonstrate that sandstone porosity can be reduced by up to 20% (relative to background porosity) and the thermal maturity of organic rich claystones can be increased. The extent of host rock alteration away from igneous intrusions is highly variable and is commonly accompanied by mechanical compaction and fracturing of the host rock within the initial 10 to 20 cm of altered host rock. Reservoir quality and source rock maturity are key elements of the petroleum system and detrimental alteration of these intervals by igneous intrusions increases geological risk and should therefore be incorporated into any risk assessment of an exploration prospect or field development.

This article is part of the New learning from exploration and development in the UKCS Atlantic Margin collection available at: https://www.lyellcollection.org/topic/collections/new-learning-from-exploration-and-development-in-the-ukcs-atlantic-margin

[open-access]

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1144/petgeo2022-086
2024-01-08
2024-04-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/pg/30/1/petgeo2022-086.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1144/petgeo2022-086&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aarnes, I., Svensen, H., Connolly, J.A. and Podladchikov, Y.Y.2010. How contact metamorphism can trigger global climate changes: modeling gas generation around igneous sills in sedimentary basins. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 7179–7195, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2010.09.011
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Aarnes, I., Svensen, H., Polteau, S. and Planke, S.2011. Contact metamorphic devolatilization of shales in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, and the effects of multiple sill intrusions. Chemical Geology, 281, 181–194, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2010.12.007
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aarnes, I., Planke, S., Trulsvik, M. and Svensen, H.2015. Contact metamorphism and thermogenic gas generation in the Vøring and Møre basins, offshore Norway, during the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum. Journal of the Geological Society, 172, 588–598, https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs2014-098
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ahmed, W.2002. Effects of heat-flow and hydrothermal fluids from volcanic intrusions on authigenic mineralization in sandstone formations. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 16, 37–52, https://doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v16i1.20946
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Aldrich, M.J., Chapin, C.E. and Laughlin, A.W.1986. Stress history and tectonic development of the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico. Journal of Geophysical Research, 91, 6199–6211, https://doi.org/10.1029/JB091iB06p06199
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Allen, P.A. and Allen, J.R.2013. Basin Analysis: Principles and Application to Petroleum Play Assessment. John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Archer, S.G., Bergman, S.C., Iliffe, J., Murphy, C.M. and Thornton, M.2005. Palaeogene igneous rocks reveal new insights into the geodynamic evolution and petroleum potential of the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic Margin. Basin Research, 17, 171–201, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2117.2005.00260.x
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Baldridge, W.S., Perry, F.V. et al.1991. Middle to late Cenozoic magmatism of the southeastern Colorado Plateau and central Rio Grande rift (New Mexico and Arizona, USA): a model for continental rifting. Tectonophysics, 197, 327–354, https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(91)90049-X
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bell, B. and Butcher, H.2002. On the emplacement of sill complexes: evidence from the Faroe–Shetland Basin.
  10. Berry, K.2018. Baculites (Ammonoidea) and the age of the Pierre Shale in the eastern Raton Basin, south-central Colorado. New Mexico Geology, 40, https://doi.org/10.58799/NMG-v40n1.1
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bishop, A.N. and Abbott, G.D.1995. Vitrinite reflectance and molecular geochemistry of Jurassic sediments: the influence of heating by Tertiary dykes (northwest Scotland). Organic Geochemistry, 22, 165–177, https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(95)90015-2
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Boreham, C.J., Blevin, J.E. et al.2002. Exploring the potential for oil generation, migration and accumulation in Cape Sorell–1, Sorell Basin, offshore West Tasmania. The APPEA Journal, 42, 405–435, https://doi.org/10.1071/AJ01022
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Busby-Spera, C.J. and White, J.D.1987. Variation in peperite textures associated with differing host-sediment properties. Bulletin of Volcanology, 49, 765–776, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01079827
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Chevallier, L.P., Goedhart, M.L. and Woodford, A.C.2001. Influence of Dolerite Sill and Ring Complexes on the Occurrence of Groundwater in Karoo Fractured Aquifers: A Morpho-tectonic Approach: Report to the Water Research Commission. Water Research Commission.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Clayton, J.L. and Bostick, N.H.1986. Temperature effects on kerogen and on molecular and isotopic composition of organic matter in Pierre Shale near an igneous dike. Organic Geochemistry, 10, 135–143, https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(86)90017-3
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Cooper, J.R., Crelling, J.C., Rimmer, S.M. and Whittington, A.G.2007. Coal metamorphism by igneous intrusions in the Raton Basin, CO and NM: implications for generation of volatiles. International Journal of Coal Geology, 71, 15–27, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2006.05.007
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Craigg, S.D.2001. Geologic Framework of the San Juan Structural Basin of New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah, with Emphasis on Triassic Through Tertiary Rocks. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1420, 70.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cummings, A.M., Hillis, R.R. and Tingate, P.R.2002. Structural evolution and thermal maturation modelling of the Bass Basin. The APPEA Journal, 42, 175–191, https://doi.org/10.1071/AJ01067
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Davies, R., Bell, B.R., Cartwright, J.A. and Shoulders, S.2002. Three-dimensional seismic imaging of Paleogene dike-fed submarine volcanoes from the northeast Atlantic margin. Geology, 30, 223–226, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0223:TDSIOP>2.0.CO;2
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Dobb, E.M., Magee, C., Jackson, C.A.L., Lathrop, B. and Köpping, J.2024. Impact of igneous intrusion and associated ground deformation on the stratigraphic record. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 525, SP525-2021, https://doi.org/10.1144/sp525-2021-115
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Duddy, I.R., Green, P.F., Bray, R.J. and Hegarty, K.A.1994. Recognition of the thermal effects of fluid flow in sedimentary basins. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 78, 325–345, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1994.078.01.22
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Eide, C.H., Schofield, N., Jerram, D.A. and Howell, J.A.2016. Basin-scale architecture of deeply emplaced sill complexes: Jameson Land, East Greenland. Journal of the Geological Society, 174, 23–40, https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs2016-018
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Eide, C.H., Schofield, N., Lecomte, I., Buckley, S.J. and Howell, J.A.2017. Seismic interpretation of sill complexes in sedimentary basins: implications for the sub-sill imaging problem. Journal of the Geological Society, 175, 193–209, https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs2017-09
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Einsele, G., Gieskes, J.M. et al.1980. Intrusion of basaltic sills into highly porous sediments, and resulting hydrothermal activity. Nature, 283, 441, https://doi.org/10.1038/283441a0
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Emeleus, C.H., Bell, B.R., MacGregor, A.G. and British Geological Survey2005. The Palaeogene volcanic districts of Scotland, 3. British Geological Survey, Nottingham.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Fyfe, J.A., Long, D. and Evans, D.1993. The Geology of the Malin–Hebrides Sea Area. United Kingdom offshore regional report. British GeologicalSurvey, HMSO, London.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gardiner, D., Schofield, N. et al.2019. Modeling petroleum expulsion in sedimentary basins: the importance of igneous intrusion timing and basement composition. Geology, 47, 904–908, https://doi.org/10.1130/G46578.1
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Gibb, F.G.F. and Kanaris-Sotiriou, R.1988. The geochemistry and origin of the Faeroe-Shetland sill complex. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 39, 241–252, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1988.039.01.22
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Goodchild, M.W., Henry, K.L., Hinkley, R.J. and Imbus, S.W.1999. The Victory gas field, west of Shetland. Geological Society, London, Petroleum Geology Conference Series, 5, 713–724, https://doi.org/10.1144/0050713
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Grove, C.2014. Direct and Indirect Effects of Flood Basalt Volcanism on Reservoir Quality Sandstone. Doctoral dissertation, Durham University.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Grove, C., Jerram, D.A., Gluyas, J.G. and Brown, R.J.2017. Sandstone Diagenesis in Sediment–lava Sequences: exceptional Examples of Volcanically Driven Diagenetic Compartmentalization in Dune Valley, Huab Outliers, Nw Namibia. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 87, 1314–1335, https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2017.75
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Haile, B.G., Czarniecka, U., Xi, K., Smyrak-Sikora, A., Jahren, J., Braathen, A. and Hellevang, H.2018. Hydrothermally induced diagenesis: evidence from shallow marine-deltaic sediments, Wilhelmøya, Svalbard. Geoscience Frontiers, 10, 629–649, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2018.02.015
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Holford, S., Schofield, N., MacDonald, J., Duddy, I. and Green, P.2012. Seismic analysis of igneous systems in sedimentary basins and their impacts on hydrocarbon prospectivity: examples from the southern Australian margin. The APPEA Journal, 52, 229–252, https://doi.org/10.1071/AJ11017
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Holford, S.P., Schofield, N., Jackson, C.L., Magee, C., Green, P.F. and Duddy, I.R.2013. Impacts of igneous intrusions on source and reservoir potential in prospective sedimentary basins along the western Australian continental margin.
  35. Holford, S.P., Schofield, N. and Reynolds, P.2017. Subsurface fluid flow focused by buried volcanoes in sedimentary basins: evidence from 3D seismic data, Bass Basin, offshore southeastern Australia. Interpretation, 5, SK39–SK50, https://doi.org/10.1190/INT-2016-0205.1
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Holness, M.B.1999. Contact metamorphism and anatexis of Torridonian arkose by minor intrusions of the Rum Igneous Complex, Inner Hebrides, Scotland. Geological Magazine, 136, 527–542, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756899002988
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Ingebritsen, S.E., Geiger, S., Hurwitz, S. and Driesner, T.2010. Numerical simulation of magmatic hydrothermal systems. Reviews of Geophysics, 48, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009RG000287
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Johnson, R.C. and Finn, T.M.2001. Potential for a Basin-Centered Gas Accumulation in the Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico. US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey, 1–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kokelaar, B.P.1982. Fluidization of wet sediments during the emplacement and cooling of various igneous bodies. Journal of the Geological Society, 139, 21–33, https://doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.139.1.0021
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Lamers, E. and Carmichael, S.M.M.1999. The Paleocene deepwater sandstone play West of Shetland. Geological Society, London, Petroleum Geology Conference Series, 5, 645–659, https://doi.org/10.1144/0050645
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Lennon, R.G., Suttill, R.J., Guthrie, D.A. and Waldron, A.R.1999. The renewed search for oil and gas in the Bass Basin: results of Yolla-2 and White Ibis-I. The APPEA Journal, 39, 248–262, https://doi.org/10.1071/AJ98015
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Magoon, L.B. and Dow, W.G.1994. The petroleum system. AAPG Memoir, 60, 3–24. [COMP: please update tagging for Magoon and Dow]
  43. Mark, N.J., Schofield, N. et al.2018. Igneous intrusions in the Faroe Shetland basin and their implications for hydrocarbon exploration; new insights from well and seismic data. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 92, 733–753, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2017.12.005
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Matter, J.M., Goldberg, D.S., Morin, R.H. and Stute, M.2006. Contact zone permeability at intrusion boundaries: new results from hydraulic testing and geophysical logging in the Newark Rift Basin, New York, USA. Hydrogeology Journal, 14, 689, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-005-0456-3
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Mckinley, J.M., Worden, R.H. and Ruffell, A.H.2001. Contact diagenesis: the effect of an intrusion on reservoir quality in the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Group, Northern Ireland. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 71, 484–495, https://doi.org/10.1306/2DC40957-0E47-11D7-8643000102C1865D
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Messent, B.E., West, B.G. and Collins, G.I.1999. Hydrocarbon prospectivity of the offshore Torquay sub-basin, Victoria: gazettal area V99-1. Department of Natural Resources and Environment.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Monreal, F.R., Villar, H.J., Baudino, R., Delpino, D. and Zencich, S.2009. Modeling an atypical petroleum system: a case study of hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation related to igneous intrusions in the Neuquen Basin, Argentina. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 26, 590–605, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2009.01.005
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Moy, D.J. and Imber, J.2009. A critical analysis of the structure and tectonic significance of rift-oblique lineaments (‘transfer zones') in the Mesozoic–Cenozoic succession of the Faroe–Shetland Basin, NE Atlantic margin. Journal of the Geological Society, 166, 831–844, https://doi.org/10.1144/0016-76492009-010
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Mudge, D.C.2015. Regional Controls on Lower Tertiary Sandstone Distribution in the North Sea and NE Atlantic Margin Basins. Geological Society,London, Special Publications, 403, 17–42,https://doi.org/10.1144/SP403.5
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Muirhead, D.K., Bowden, S.A., Parnell, J. and Schofield, N. 2017. Source rock maturation owing to igneous intrusion in rifted margin petroleum systems. Journal of the Geological Society, 174, 979–987, https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs2017-011
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Murchison, D.G. and Raymond, A.C.1989. Igneous activity and organic maturation in the Midland Valley of Scotland. International Journal of Coal Geology, 14, 47–82, https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-5162(89)90078-5
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Parnell, J.2010. Potential of palaeofluid analysis for understanding oil charge history. Geofluids, 10, 73–82, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-8123.2009.00268.x
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Peace, A., McCaffrey, K., Imber, J., Hobbs, R., van Hunen, J. and Gerdes, K.2017. Quantifying the influence of sill intrusion on the thermal evolution of organic-rich sedimentary rocks in nonvolcanic passive margins: an example from ODP 210-1276, offshore Newfoundland, Canada. Basin Research, 29, 249–265, https://doi.org/10.1111/bre.12131
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Peters, K.E., Walters, C.C. and Moldowan, J.M.2005. The Biomarker Guide, 1. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Planke, S., Alvestad, E. and Eldholm, O.1999. Seismic characteristics of basaltic extrusive and intrusive rocks. The Leading Edge, 18, 342–348, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1438289
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Planke, S., Rasmussen, T., Rey, S.S. and Myklebust, R.2005. Seismic characteristics and distribution of volcanic intrusions and hydrothermal vent complexes in the Vøring and Møre basins. Geological Society, London, Petroleum Geology Conference Series, 6, 833–84, https://doi.org/10.1144/0060833 [COMP: note changes to Planke et al. 2005]
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Pross, J., Pletsch, T., Shillington, D.J., Ligouis, B., Schellenberg, F. and Kus, J.2007. Thermal alteration of terrestrial palynomorphs in mid-Cretaceous organic-rich mudstones intruded by an igneous sill (Newfoundland Margin, ODP Hole 1276A). International Journal of Coal Geology, 70, 277–291, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2006.06.005
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Radke, M.1988. Application of aromatic compounds as maturity indicators in source rocks and crude oils. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 5, 224–236, https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-8172(88)90003-7
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Rateau, R., Schofield, N. and Smith, M.2013. The potential role of igneous intrusions on hydrocarbon migration, West of Shetland. Petroleum Geoscience, 19, 259–272, https://doi.org/10.1144/petgeo2012-035
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Raymond, A.C. and Murchison, D.G.1991. The relationship between organic maturation, the widths of thermal aureoles and the thicknesses of sills in the Midland Valley of Scotland and Northern England. Journal of the Geological Society, 148, 215–218, https://doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.148.2.0215
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Reynolds, P., Holford, S., Schofield, N. and Ross, A.2017. The shallow depth emplacement of mafic intrusions on a magma-poor rifted margin: an example from the Bight Basin, southern Australia. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 88, 605–616, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2017.09.008
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Rider, M. and Kennedy, M.2011. The Geological Interpretation of Well Logs. 3rd edn. Rider-French Consulting Ltd, Glasgow.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Ritchie, J.D., Ziska, H., Johnson, H. and Evans, D.2011. Geology of the Faroe-Shetland Basin and adjacent areas. British Geological Survey.
  64. Rohrman, M.2007. Prospectivity of volcanic basins: trap delineation and acreage de-risking. AAPG Bulletin, 91, 915–939, https://doi.org/10.1306/12150606017
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Schofield, N., Stevenson, C. and Reston, T.2010. Magma fingers and host rock fluidization in the emplacement of sills. Geology, 38, 63–66, https://doi.org/10.1130/G30142.1
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Schofield, N.J., Brown, D.J., Magee, C. and Stevenson, C.T.2012. Sill morphology and comparison of brittle and non-brittle emplacement mechanisms. Journal of the Geological Society, 169, 127–141, https://doi.org/10.1144/0016-76492011-078
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Schofield, N., Holford, S. et al.2017. Regional magma plumbing and emplacement mechanisms of the Faroe-Shetland Sill Complex: implications for magma transport and petroleum systems within sedimentary basins. Basin Research, 29, 41–63, https://doi.org/10.1111/bre.12164
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Schofield, N., Jolley, D. et al.2018a. Challenges of future exploration within the UK Rockall Basin. Geological Society, London, Petroleum Geology Conference Series, 8, 211–229, https://doi.org/10.1144/PGC8.37 [COMP: note insertion of DOI in Schofield et al 2018a]
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Schofield, N., Jerram, D.A. et al.2018b. Sills in sedimentary basins and petroleum systems. Physical Geology of Shallow Magmatic Systems: Dykes, Sills and Laccoliths, 273–294, https://doi.org/10.1007/11157_2015_17
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Schofield, N., Holford, S., Edwards, A., Mark, N. and Pugliese, S.2020. Overpressure transmission through interconnected igneous intrusions. AAPG Bulletin, 104, 285–303, https://doi.org/10.1306/05091918193
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Schutter, S.R.2003. Hydrocarbon occurrence and exploration in and around igneous rocks. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 214, 7–33, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2003.214.01.02
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Senger, K., Planke, S., Polteau, S., Ogata, K. and Svensen, H.2014. Sill emplacement and contact metamorphism in a siliciclastic reservoir on Svalbard, Arctic Norway. Norwegian Journal of, 94, 155–169.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Senger, K., Buckley, S.J. et al.2015. Fracturing of doleritic intrusions and associated contact zones: implications for fluid flow in volcanic basins. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 102, 70–85, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2014.10.019
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Senger, K., Millett, J. et al.2017. Effects of igneous intrusions on the petroleum system: a review. First Break, 35, 47–56, https://doi.org/10.3997/1365-2397.2017011
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Smallwood, J.R. and Maresh, J.2002. The properties, morphology and distribution of igneous sills: modelling, borehole data and 3D seismic from the Faroe-Shetland area. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 197, 271–306, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2002.197.01.11
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Smith, L.N., Lucas, S.G., Kues, B.S., Williamson, T.E. and Hunt, A.P.1992. Stratigraphy, sediment dispersal and paleogeography of the lower Eocene San Jose Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado. In:San Juan Basin IV: New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 43rd Field Conference, New Mexico, 297–309.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Spacapan, J.B., Palma, J.O., Galland, O., Manceda, R., Rocha, E., D'odorico, A. and Leanza, H.A.2018. Thermal impact of igneous sill-complexes on organic-rich formations and implications for petroleum systems: a case study in the northern Neuquén Basin, Argentina. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 91, 519–531, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2018.01.018
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Spacapan, J.B., Palma, O., Galland, O., Senger, K., Ruiz, R., Manceda, R. and Leanza, H.A.2020. Low resistivity zones at contacts of igneous intrusions emplaced in organic-rich formations and their implications on fluid flow and petroleum systems: a case study in the northern Neuquén Basin, Argentina. Basin Research, 32, 3–24, https://doi.org/10.1111/bre.12363
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Stagg, H.M.V., Cockshell, C.D. et al.1990. Basins of the Great Australian Bight Region, Geology and Petroleum Potential. Bureau of Mineral Resources, A, Continental Margins Program, Folio 5.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Stoker, M.S.2016. Cretaceous tectonostratigraphy of the Faroe–Shetland region. Scottish Journal of Geology, 52, 19–41, https://doi.org/10.1144/sjg2016-004
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Summer, N.S. and Ayalon, A.1995. Dike intrusion into unconsolidated sandstone and the development of quartzite contact zones. Journal of Structural Geology, 17, 997–1010, https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(95)00009-3
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Svensen, H., Planke, S., Malthe-Sørenssen, A., Jamtveit, B., Myklebust, R., Eidem, T.R. and Rey, S.S.2004. Release of methane from a volcanic basin as a mechanism for initial Eocene global warming. Nature, 429, 542, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02566
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Thomson, K. and Hutton, D.2004. Geometry and growth of sill complexes: insights using 3D seismic from the North Rockall Trough. Bulletin of Volcanology, 66, 364–375, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-003-0320-z
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Van Wyk, W.L.1963. Ground-Water Studies in Northern Natal, Zululand and Surrounding Areas. Geological Survey of South Africa, Memoir, 52. Republic of South Africa, Pretoria.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Watson, D., Holford, S., Schofield, N. and Mark, N.2019. Failure to predict igneous rocks encountered during exploration of sedimentary basins: a case study of the Bass Basin, Southeastern Australia. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 99, 526–547, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2018.10.034
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Woodward, L.E.1987. Tectonic framework of northeastern New Mexico and adjacent parts of Colorado, Oklahoma and Texas. Northeastern New Mexico: New Mexico Geological Society, Guidebook, 38, 67–71.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Wyllie, M.R.J., Gregory, A.R. and Gardner, L.W.1956. Elastic wave velocities in heterogeneous and porous media. Geophysics, 21, 41–70, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1438217
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Xu, K., Yu, B., Gong, H., Ruan, Z., Pan, Y. and Ren, Y.2015. Carbonate reservoirs modified by magmatic intrusions in the Bachu area, Tarim Basin, NW China. Geoscience Frontiers, 6, 779–790, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2015.02.002
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1144/petgeo2022-086
Loading
/content/journals/10.1144/petgeo2022-086
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article

Most Cited This Month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error