1887
Volume 14 Number 3
  • E-ISSN: 1365-2117

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The quantitative modelling of fluvial reservoirs, especially in the stages of enhanced oil recovery, requires detailed three‐dimensional data at both the scale of the channel belt and within‐channel. Although studies from core, analogue outcrop and modern environments may partially meet these needs, they often cannot provide detail on the smaller‐scale (i.e. channel‐scale) heterogeneity, frequently suffer from limited three‐dimensional exposure and cannot be used to examine the influence of different variables on the process–deposit relationship. Physical modelling offers a complementary technique that can address many of these quantitative requirements and holds great future potential for integration with reservoir modelling. Physical modelling provides the potential to upscale results and derive reservoir information on three‐dimensional facies geometry, connectivity and permeability.

This paper describes the development and use of physical modelling, which employs generic Froude‐scaling principles, in an experimental basin that permits aggradation in order to model the morphology and subsurface depositional stratigraphy of coarse‐grained braided rivers. An example is presented of a 1:50 scale model based on the braided Ashburton River, Canterbury Plains, New Zealand and the adjacent late Quaternary braided alluvium exposed in the coastal cliffs. Critically, a full, bimodal grain size distribution (20% sand and 80% gravel) was used to replicate the prototype, which allows the realistic reproduction of the surface morphology and importantly permits grain size sorting during deposition. Uncertainties associated with the compression of time, sediment mass balance and the hydrodynamics of the finest particle sizes do not appear to affect the reproducibility of stratigraphy between experimental and natural environments.

Sectioning of the preserved sedimentary sequence in the physical model allows quantification of the geometry, shape, spatial distribution and internal sedimentary structure of the coarse‐ and fine‐grained facies. A six‐fold facies scheme is proposed for the model braided alluvium and a direct link is established between the grain size distribution and facies type: this allows permeability to be estimated for each facies, which can be mapped onto two‐dimensional vertical cross‐sections of the preserved stratigraphy. Results demonstrate the dominance of four facies based on permeability that range over three orders of magnitude in hydraulic conductivity. Quantification of such variability, and linkage to both vertical proportion curves for facies distribution and connectivity presents significant advantages over other methodologies and offers great potential for the modelling of heterogeneous braided river sediments at the within channel‐belt scale. This paper outlines how physical models may be used to develop high‐resolution, geologically‐accurate, object‐based reservoir simulation models.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1046/j.1365-2117.2002.00189.x
2002-09-23
2020-09-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Alexander, J. (1993) A discussion on the use of analogues for reservoir geology. In: Advances in Reservoir Geology (Ed. by M.Ashton ). Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. Lond. , 69, 175–194.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson, M.P., Aiken, J.S., Webb, E.K. & Mickelson, D.M. (1999) Sedimentology and hydrogeology of two braided stream deposits. Sedimentary Geol., 129, 187–199.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ashmore, P.E. (1988) Bedload transport in braided gravel‐bed stream morphology. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, 13, 677–695.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ashmore, P.E. (1991a) How do gravel‐bed rivers braid?Can. J. Earth Sci., 28, 326–341.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ashmore, P.E. (1991b) Channel morphology and bed load pulses in braided, gravel‐bed streams. Geografiska Annaler, 68, 361–371.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ashworth, P.J. (1996) Mid‐channel bar growth and its relationship to local flow strength and direction. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, 21, 103–123.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ashworth, P.J. & Best, J.L. (1998) Discussion of J. Warburton & T.R.H. Davies ‘Use of hydraulic models in management of braided gravel‐bed rivers’. In: Gravel‐Bed Rivers in the Environment (Ed. by P.C.Klingeman , R.L.Beschta , P.D.Komar & J.B.Bradley ), pp. 539–540. Water Resources Publications, Colorado.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ashworth, P.J., Best, J.L., Leddy, J.O. & Geehan, G.W. (1994) The physical modelling of braided rivers and deposition of fine‐grained sediment. In: Process Models and Theoretical Geomorphology (Ed. by M.J.Kirkby ), pp. 115–139. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ashworth, P.J., Best, J.L., Peakall, J. & Lorsong, J.A. (1999) The influence of aggradation rate on braided alluvial architecture: field study and physical scale modelling of the Ashburton River gravels, Canterbury Plains, New Zealand. In: Fluvial Sedimentology VI (Ed. by N.D.Smith & J.Rogers ), International Ass. Sedimentol. Spec. Publ., Blackwells, 28, 333–346.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Atkinson, C.D., Mcgowen, J.H., Bloch, S., Lundell, L.L. & Trumbly, P.N. (1990) Braidplain and deltaic reservoir, Prudhoe Bay Field, Alaska. In: Sandstone Petroleum Reservoirs (Ed. by J.H.Barwis , J.G.McPherson & J.R.J.Studlick ), pp. 7–29. Springer Verlag, New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bal, A.A. (1996) Valley fills and coastal cliffs buried beneath an alluvial plain: evidence from variation of permeabilities in gravel aquifers, Canterbury Plains, New Zealand. J. Hydrol. (NZ), 35, 1–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Begg, S.H., Carter, R.R. & Dranfield, P. (1989) Assigning effective values to simulator gridblock parameters for heterogeneous reservoirs. Soc. of Petroleum Engineers, Paper 16754, 455–463.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Best, J.L. (1988) Sediment transport and bed morphology at river channel confluences. Sedimentology, 35, 481–498.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Biron, P., Best, J.L. & Roy, A.G. (1996) Effects of bed discordance on flow dynamics at open channel confluences. J. Hydraulic Eng., ASCE, 122, 676–682.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bradbury, K.R. & Muldoon, M.R. (1990) Hydraulic conductivity determinations in unlithified glacial and fluvial materials. American Society for Testing and Materials Special Technical Publication, 138–151.
  16. Brayshaw, A.C., Davies, G.W. & Corbett, P.W.M. (1996) Depositional controls on primary permeability and porosity at the bedform scale in fluvial reservoir sandstones. In: Advances in Fluvial Dynamics and Stratigraphy (Ed. by P.A.Carling. & M.R.Dawson ), pp. 373–394. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bridge, J.S. (1993) Description and interpretation of fluvial deposits: a critical perspective. Sedimentology, 40, 801–810.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bridge, J.S., Jalfin, G.A. & Georgieff, S.M. (2000) Geometry, lithofacies, and spatial distribution of Cretaceous fluvial sandstone bodies, San Jorge basin, Argentina: outcrop analog for the hydrocarbon‐bearing Chubut Group. J. Sedim. Res., 70, 341–359.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bridge, J.S. & Tye, R.S. (2000) Interpreting the dimensions of ancient fluvial channel bars, channels, and channel belts from wireline‐logs and core. Bull. Am. Ass. Petroleum Geols., 84, 1205–1228.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Bryant, M., Falk, P. & Paola, C. (1995) Experimental study of avulsion frequency and rate of deposition. Geology, 23, 365–368.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cazanacli, D., Paola, P. & Parker, G. (2002) Experimental steep, braided flow: application to flooding risk on fans. J. Hydraulic Eng., ASCE, 128(3), 322–330.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Chadwick, A.J. & Morfett, J.C. (1986) Hydraulics in Civil Engineering.Harper Collins, London, 492pp.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Chorley, R.J. (1967) Models in geomorphology. In: Models in Geography (Ed. by R.J.Chorley & P.Haggett ), pp. 56–96. Methuen, London.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Church, M., Wolcott, J.F. & Fletcher, W.K. (1991) A test of equal mobility in fluvial sediment transport: behavior of the sand fraction. Water Resour. Res., 27, 2941–2951.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Corbett, P.W.M. & Jensen, J.L. (1993) Quantification of variability in laminated sediments: a role for the probe permeameter in improved reservoir characterisation. In: Characterisation of Fluvial and Aeolian Reservoirs (Ed. by C.P.North & D.J.Prosser ), Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. , 73, 422–433.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Davis, J.M.,Lohmann, R.C.,Phillips, F.M.,Wilson, J.L. & Love, D.W. (1993) Architecture of the Sierra Ladrones Formation, central New Mexico: Depositional controls on the permeability correlation structure.Bull. Am. Geol. Soc., 105, 998–1007.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Deutsch, C.V. & Wang, L. (1996) Hierarchical object‐based stochastic modelling of fluvial reservoirs.Mathematical Geology, 28, 857–880.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Dominic, D.F.,Ritzi, R.W.,Reboulet, E.C. & Zmmer, A.C. (1998) Geostatistical analysis of facies distributions: elements of a quantitative facies model. In: Hydrogeologic Models of Sedimentary Aquifers (Ed. by G.S.P. Fraser & M.J. Davis),137–146.
  29. Dreyer, T., Scheie, A. & Walderhaug, O. (1990) Minipermeameter‐based study of permeability trends in channel sand bodies. Bull. Am. Ass. Petroleum Geols., 74, 359–374.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Dreyer, T.,Falt, L.M.,Hoy, T.,Knarud, R.,Steel, R. & Cuevas, L.J. (1993) Sedimentary architecture of field analogues for reservoir information (SAFARI): a case study of the fluvial Escanilla Formation, Spanish Pyrenees. In:The Geological Modelling of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Outcrop Analogues (Ed. by S.S.Flint & I.D.Bryant ), Int. Ass. Sediment. Spec. Publ., 15, 57–80.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Eschard, R., Lemouzy, P., Bacchiana, C., Desaubliaux, J., Parpant, J. & Smart, B. (1998) Combining sequence stratigraphy, geostatistical simulations, and production data for modelling a fluvial reservoir in the Chaunoy Field (Triassic, France). Bull. Am. Ass. Petroleum Geols., 82, 545–568.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Fielding, C.R. & Crane, R.C. (1987) An application of statistical modelling to the prediction of hydrocarbon recovery factors in fluvial reservoir sequences. In: Recent Developments in Fluvial Sedimentology (Ed. by F.G.Etheridge , R.M.Flores & M.D.Harvey ), Soc. of Econ. Paleo. and Minerol., Spec. Publ. , 39, 321–327.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Freeze, R.A. & Cherry, J.A. (1979) Groundwater: Englewood Cliffs. N. J. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 604pp.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. French, R.H. (1985) Open‐Channel Hydraulics. McGraw‐Hill, New York, 739pp.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Friend, P.F., Mahmood Raza, S., Geehan, G. & Sheikh, K.A. (2001) Intermediate‐scale architectural features of the fluvial Chinji Formation (Miocene), Siwalik Group, Northern Pakistan. J. Geol. Soc., Lond., 158, 163–177.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Gelhar, L.W., Welty, C. & Rehfeldt, K.R. (1992) A critical review of data on field‐scale dispersion in Aquifers. Water Resour. Res., 28, 1955–1974.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Gilbert, G.K. (1914) Transportation of debris in the Sierra Nevada. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper, 86, 263pp.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Gran, K. & Paola, C. (2001) Riparian vegetation controls on braided stream dynamics. Water Resour. Res., 37(12), 3275–3283.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Guy, H.P., Simons, D.B. & Richardson, E.V. (1966) Summary of alluvial channel data from flume experiments 1956–1961. US Geol. Surv. Priof. Paper, 462–1, 96pp.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Haldorsen, H.H. & Chang, D.M. (1986) Notes on stochastic shales, from outcrop to simulation model. In: Reservoir Characterization (Ed. by L.W.Lake & H.B.Carroll ), pp. 445–485. Academic Press, London.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Hazen, A. (1893) Some physical properties of sands and gravels with special reference to their filtration.Lawrence, Mass., 24th Annual Report of the State Board of heath of Massachusetts for 1893, 24pp.
  42. Heller, P.L., Paola, C., Hwang, I., John, B. & Steel, R. (2001) Geomorphology and sequence stratigraphy due to slow and rapid base‐level changes in an experimental basin (XES 96‐1). Bull. Am. Ass. Petroleum Geols., 85, 817–838.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Henderson, F.M. (1966) Open Channel Flow. Macmillan, New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Hirst, J.P.P., Blackstock, C.R. & Tyson, S. (1993) Stochastic modelling of fluvial sandstone bodies. In: The Geological Modelling of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Outcrop Analogues (Ed. by S.S.Flint & I.D.Bryant ). Int. Ass. Sediment. Spec. Publ. , 15, 237–252.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Hoey, T.B. & Sutherland, A.J. (1991) Channel morphology and bedload pulses in braided rivers: a laboratory study. Earth Surf. Proc. Landforms, 16, 447–462.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Hooke, R.L. (1968) Model geology: prototype and laboratory streams: discussion. Bull. Geol Soc. Am., 79, 391–394.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Hornung, J. & Aigner, T. (1999) Reservoir and aquifer characterisation of fluvial architectural elements: Stubensandstein, Upper Triassic, Southwest Germany. Sedimentary Geol., 129, 215–280.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Hughes, S.A. (1993) Physical Models and Laboratory Techniques in Coastal Engineering.Advanced Series on Ocean Engineering,Vol. 7World Scientific, Singapore.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Jacobson, T. & Rendall, H. (1991) Permeability patterns in some fluvial sandstones. An outcrop study from Yorkshire, North‐east England. In: Reservoir Characterization (Ed. by L.W.Lake , H.B.Carroll. & T.C.Wesson ), pp. 315–338. Academic Press, London.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Jin, D. & Schumm, S.A. (1987) A new technique for modelling river morphology. In: International Geomorphology 1986 Part 1 (Ed. by V.Gardiner ), pp. 681–690. John Wiley, Chichester.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Koss, J.E., Ethridge, F.G. & Schumm, S.A. (1994) An experimental study of the effects of base‐level change on fluvial, coastal plain and shelf systems. J. Sedim. Res., B64, 90–98.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Kupfersberger, H. & Deutsch, C.V. (1999) Methodology for integrating analog geologic data in 3‐D variogram modelling. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geol. , 83, 1262–1278.
  53. Langhaar, H.L. (1980) Dimensional Analysis and Theory of Hydraulic Models. Robert E. Krieger, Florida, 178pp.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Leddy, J.O., Ashworth, P.J. & Best, J.L. (1993) Mechanisms of anabranch avulsion within gravel‐bed braided rivers: observations from a physical scale model. In: Braided Rivers (Ed. by J.L.Best & C.S.Bristow ), Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. , 75, 119–127.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Leopold, L.B. & Wolman, M.G. (1957) River channel patterns: braided, meandering and straight. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper, 282‐B, 39–85.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Lui, K., Boult, P., Painter, S. & Paterson, L. (1996) Outcrop analog for sandy braided stream reservoirs: permeability patterns in the Triassic Hawkesbury Sandstone, Sydney basin, Australia. Bull. Am. Ass. Petroleum Geols., 80, 1850–1866.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Mardon, S.A. (2000) Flow structure and mid‐channel bar growth in braided rivers. Unpublished PhD Thesis, School of Geography, University of Leeds.
  58. Masch, F.D. & Denny, K.J. (1966) Grain‐size distribution and its effect on the permeability of unconsolidated sands. Water Resour. Res., 2, 665–677.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. McLelland, S.J., Ashworth, P.J. & Best, J.L. (1996) The origin and downstream development of coherent flow structures at channel junctions. In: Coherent Flow Structures in Open Channels (Ed. by P.J.Ashworth , S.J.Bennett , J.L.Best & S.J.McLelland ), pp. 459–490. Wiley and Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Miall, A.D. (1985) Architectural‐element analysis; a new method of facies analysis applied to fluvial deposits. Earth Sci. Rev., 22, 261–308.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Miller, D.D., McPherson, J.G. & Covington, T.E. (1990) Fluviodeltaic reservoir, South Belridge Field, San Joaguin Valley, California. In: Sandstone Petroleum Reservoirs (Ed. by J.H.Barwis , J.G.McPherson & J.R.J.Studlick ), pp. 109–130. Springer Verlag, New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Moreton, D.J. (2001) Characterising alluvial architecture using physical models, subsurface data and field analogues. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Leeds.
  63. Mosley, M.P. (1976) An experimental study of channel confluences. J. Geol., 84, 535–562.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. North, C.P. (1996) The prediction and modelling of subsurface fluvial stratigraphy. In: Advances in Fluvial Dynamics and Stratigraphy (Ed. by P.A.Carling & M.R.Dawson ), pp. 395–508. Chichester, UK.
  65. North, C.P. & Taylor, K.S. (1996) Ephemeral‐fluvial deposits: Integrated outcrop and simulation studies reveal complexity. Bull. Am. Ass. Petroleum Geols., 80, 811–830.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Panda, M.N. & Lake, L.W. (1994) Estimation of single‐phase permeability from parameters of particle‐size distribution. Bull. Am. Ass. Petroleum Geols., 78, 1028–1039.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Paola, C. (2000) Quantitative models of sedimentary basin filling. Sedimentology, 47 (Suppl. 1), 121–178.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Paola, C., Mullin, J., Ellis, C., Hickson, T., Mohrig, D.C., Parker, G., Heller, P.L., Swenson, J.B., Sheets, B., Strong, N., Pratson, L. & Syvitski, J. (2001) Experimental stratigraphy. GSA Today, 11, 4–9.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Peakall, J. (1995) The influence of lateral ground‐tilting on channel morphology and alluvial architecture. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Department of Earth Science, University of Leeds.
  70. Peakall, J., Ashworth, P.J. & Best, J.L. (1996) Physical modelling in fluvial geomorphology: principles, applications and unresolved issues. In: The Scientific Nature of Geomorphology (Ed. by B.L.Rhoads & C.E.Thorn ), pp. 221–253. John Wiley and Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Ravenne, C. & Beucher, H. (1988) Recent development in description of sedimentary bodies in a fluvio deltaic reservoir and their 3D conditional simulations. Soc. of Petroleum Engineers, Paper 18310,463–475.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Rider, M.H. (1986) The Geological Interpretation of Well Logs. Blackie Halsted Press, Glasgow, 175pp.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Robinson, D.A. & Friedman, S.P. (2001) Effect of particle size distribution on effective dielectric permitivity of saturated granular media. Water Resour. Res., 37, 33–40.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Robinson, J.W. & McCabe, P.J. (1997) Sandstone‐body and shale‐body dimensions in a braided fluvial system: Salt Wash Sandstone Member (Morrison Formation), Garfield County, Utah. Bull. Am. Assoc Petroleum Geol., 81, 1267–1291.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Sadler, P.M. (1981) Sediment accumulation rates and the completeness of stratigraphic sections. J. Geol, 89, 569–584.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Sahin, A., Ghori, S.G., Ali, A.Z., El‐Sahn, H.F., Hassan, H.M. & Al‐Sanounah, A. (1998) Geological controls of variograms in a complex carbonate reservoir, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Mathematical Geology, 30, 309–322.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Sapozhnikov, V. & Foufoula‐GEorgiou, E. (1997) Experimental evidence of dynamic scaling and indications of self‐organised criticality in braided rivers. Water Resour. Res., 33, 1983–1991.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Scheibe, T.D. & Freyberg, D.L. (1995) Use of sedimentological information for geometric simulation of natural porous media structure. Water Resour. Res., 31, 3259–3270.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Schumm, S.A. & Khan, H.R. (1972) Experimental study of channel patterns. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 83, 1755–1770.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Schumm, S.A., Mosley, P.M. & Weaver, W.E. (1987) Experimental Fluvial Geomorphology. Wiley & Sons, USA, 413pp.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Seifert, D. & Jensen, J.L. (2000) Object and pixel‐based reservoir modelling of a braided fluvial reservoir. Mathematical Geol., 32, 581–603.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Sheets, B.A., Hickson, T.A. & Paola, C. (2002) Assembling the stratigraphic record: depositional patterns and time‐scales in an experimental alluvial basin. Basin Res., 14, 287–301.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Shvidchenko, A.B. & Kopaliani, Z.D. (1998) Hydraulic modelling of bed loads transport in gravel‐bed Laba River. J. Hydraulic Eng., ASCE, 124, 778–785.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Smith, C.E. (1998) Modeling high sinuosity meanders in a small flume. Geomorphology, 25, 19–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Southard, J.B. & Boguchwal, L.A. (1990) Bed configurations in steady unidirectional water flows, part 2, synthesis of flume data. J. Sedim. Petrol., 60, 658–679.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Stokstad, E. (2000) Seeing a world in grains of sand. Science, 287, 1912–1915.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Tye, R.S., Bhattacharya, J.P., Lorsong, J.A., Sindelar, S.T., Knock, G.D., Puls, D.D. & Levinson, R.A. (1999) Geology and stratigraphy of fluvio‐deltaic deposits in the Ivishak Formation: Applications for development of Prudhoe Bay Field, Alaska. Bull. Am. Ass. Petroleum Geols., 83, 1588–1623.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Van Heijst, M.W.I.M. & Postma, G. (2001) Fluvial response to sea‐level change: a quantitative analogue, experimental approach. Basin Res., 13, 269–292.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Van Heijst, M.W.I.M., Postma, G., Meijer, X.D., Snow, J.N. & Anderson, J.B. (2001) Quantitative analogue flume‐model study of river‐shelf systems: principles and verification exemplifed by the Late Quaternary Colorado river‐delta evolution. Basin Res., 13, 243–268.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Vaughan, A., Hansen, T., Cardon, H. & Radcliffe, N. (1999) Litho‐flow facies prediction in alluvial fan/fluvial system, Central North Sea. Petroleum Geoscience, 5, 409–419.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Warburton, J. & Davies, T. (1994) Variability of bedload transport and channel morphology in a braided river hydraulic model. Earth Surf. Proc. Landforms, 19, 403–421.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Weber, K.J. (1986) Influence on fluid flow of common sedimentary structures in sandbodies. Soc. of Petroleum Engineers, Paper 9247,1–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Wood, L.J., Ethridge, F.G. & Schumm, S.A. (1993) The effects of rate of base‐level fluctuation on coastal‐plain, shelf and slope depositional systems: an experimental approach. In: Sequence Stratigraphy and Facies Associations (Ed. by H.W.Posamentier , C.P.Summerhayes , B.U.Haq & G.P.Allen ). Int. Ass. Sed. Spec. Publ. , 18, 43–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Yalin, M.S. (1971) Theory of Hydraulic Models. Macmillan, London, 266pp.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1046/j.1365-2117.2002.00189.x
Loading
/content/journals/10.1046/j.1365-2117.2002.00189.x
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error